Introduction

Although female patients make up a small percentage or those in AUR, they are not as uncommon as one might think. Many of the conditions causing AUR or CUR in women are the same as in men, and these shall therefore not be covered again. However, due to obvious anatomical differences, the causes of AUR can be very different.

Largely speaking, the management is the same as in men in the acute phase. If the bladder is failing to drain, then drainage needs to be re-established. In some cases, as with men, this is achieved by the passage of a urethral catheter, and in others suprapubic catheterization is required. Also, long-term management is often the same, although the teaching of CISC involves explaining to many women the location of the urethral meatus, since it is not as obviously sited as it is in male patients.

A few women may have disturbed renal function and chronic outflow tract obstruction, but this is extremely rare and much more commonly related to another cause of renal impairment. The assessment of the female patient should be no different from assessment in the male, with thorough history taking and examination being the cornerstone of diagnosis.

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