New Developments in Anesthesia

3.1 Perioperative Cardiac Complications 8

3.1.1 Myocardial Ischemia 8

3.1.2 Arrhythmias 9

3.1.2.1 Bradycardia 10

3.1.2.2 Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias 10

3.1.2.3 Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias 11

3.1.3 Acute Heart Failure 12

3.1.3.1 Etiology 12

3.1.3.2 Diagnosis 12

3.1.3.3 Therapy 13

3.2 Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism 15

3.2.1 Risk Factors 15

3.2.2 Medical History 16

3.2.3 Therapy 16

3.3 Shock 17

3.3.1 Intraoperative and Postoperative Hemorrhage 17

3.3.2 Anaphylaxis 18

3.3.2.1 Symptoms and Treatment 18

3.4 Sepsis 18

3.4.1 Definitions 18

3.4.1.1 Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome 18

3.4.1.2 Sepsis 19

3.4.2 Standard Therapy for Sepsis 19

3.4.3 Early Goal Directed Therapy for Sepsis 19

3.4.4 Heidelberg Sepsis Pathway 19

3.5 Intensive Care Procedures 20

3.5.1 Analgosedation 20

3.5.1.1 Algorithm 21

3.5.1.2 Assessment ofAgitation and Pain 23

3.5.1.3 Drug Adjustment 23

3.5.2 Monitoring 23

3.5.2.1 Transesophageal Echocardiography 23

3.6 Intraoperative and Postoperative Procedures 25

3.6.1 TUR Syndrome 25

3.6.2 Prevention ofPostoperative Nausea and Vomiting 25

3.6.2.1 Risk Factors for PONV 26

3.6.2.2 Antiemetic Strategy 26

3.6.2.3 Antiemetic Drugs 27

3.7 Perioperative Management of Jehovah's Witnesses 27

3.7.1 Legal Issues 28

3.7.2 Physiology ofAnemia 28

3.7.3 Strategies to Avoid Blood Transfusions 28

3.7.4 Conclusion 30

References 30

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