Pathophysiology

Urethral strictures are essentially urethral scars, of varying etiology. Historically they were most commonly caused by gonococcal urethritis (Singh and Blandy 1976), but in recent years they are typically the result of trauma, either external or iatrogenic. Some are still caused by inflammatory conditions such as balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) and a large percentage are of unknown etiology, presumed secondary to infection or inflammation in the paraurethral glands. One of the known causative agents is extravasation of urine following urothelial damage (Singh and Blandy 1976), but a common feature is the progressive nature of the majority of these scars to cause circumferential urethral lumen narrowing (Weiss et al. 2001).

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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