Renal Trauma

E. Serafetinides

15.4

15.4.1 Anatomy 201

15.4.2 Iatrogenic Vascular Injuries 202

15.4.3 Renal Transplantation 202

15.4.4 Percutaneous Renal Procedures 203

15.4.5 Renal Injuries 205

15.4.5.1 Background 205

15.4.5.2 Mode of Injury 205 Injury Classification 206

15.4.5.3 Diagnosis: Initial Emergency Assessment 207 History and Physical Examination 208 Laboratory Evaluation 208

Imaging: Criteria for Radiographic Assessment in Adults 209

15.4.5.4 Treatment 213

Indications for Renal Exploration 213 Operative Findings and Reconstruction 214 Nonoperative Management of Renal Injuries 215 Postoperative Care and Follow-up 216 Complications 216

Renal Injury in the Polytrauma Patient 217

15.4.6 Foreign Bodies 217

15.4.7 Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage 217 References 218

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