Fetal malformation, developmental delay, growth delay, or in utero death are the usual consequences reported. There is a linear relation between the radiation dose and the risk of delays in mental development (Biy-ani and Joyce 2002a). Several experimental studies in animals show that the risk of irradiation during the first weeks of pregnancy often obeys the all-or-nothing law: miscarriage or absence of malformation (Gorton and Whitfield 1997). Below 50 mGy, the risk of malformation seems negligible even if minimal biochemical modifications are possible. This threshold value is well under the dose delivered by radiological diagnostic tests (plain abdomen = 1 mGy/radiograph, 1 min of image intensifier = 2 mGy) (Denstedt and Razvi 1992).
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