R. Tiguert, Y. Fradet
14.1 Renal Cell Carcinoma 172
14.1.1 Hypercalcemia 173
14.1.2 Hypertension 174
14.1.3 Hyperglycemia 174
14.1.4 Cushing's Syndrome 174
14.1.5 Human Chorionic Gonadotropin 175
14.1.6 Hematologic Syndromes 175
14.1.7 Amyloidosis 175
14.1.8 Hepatic Syndromes 175
14.1.9 Constitutional Symptoms 176
14.1.10 Neuromuscular and Cutaneous Syndromes 176
14.2 Prostate Cancer 176
14.2.1 Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion 176
14.2.2 Cushing's Syndrome 177
14.2.3 Hypercalcemia 177
14.2.4 Hypophosphatemia 177
14.2.5 Human Chorionic Gonadotropin 178
14.2.6 Hematologic Syndromes 178
14.2.7 Neuromuscular and Cutaneous Syndromes 178
14.3 Bladder Cancer 179
14.3.1 Hypercalcemia 179
14.3.2 Dermatomyositis 179
14.3.3 Hematologic 179
14.4 Testicular Cancer 179
14.4.1 Gynecomastia 179
14.4.2 Dermatomyositis 180
14.5 Penile Cancer 180
Paraneoplastic syndromes represent a constellation of complex signs and symptoms that result from the release of various tumor-associated proteins rather than as a consequence of local or distant metastasis. Paraneoplastic syndromes have been estimated to occur in 15%-20% of all cancer patients. The syndromes may affect any of the systems of the body, may precede or follow the diagnosis of the underlying neoplasm, and may or may not parallel the course of the neoplasm in severity. The diagnosis and therapy for these syndromes can be challenging to a physician, but successful therapy may bring about worthwhile relief for the patient. These syndromes are important for many reasons. They occasionally aid in the early diagnosis of neoplasms, and they have aided in the discovery that many (and perhaps most) neoplasms produce hor mones or other substances that can be used as tumor markers. These markers are of increasing use in early diagnosis, in following the course of neoplasm and targeting therapy. A better understanding of the precise mechanisms involved in neoplasm production of these remote effects may help to achieve abetter understanding of the nature of the neoplastic process itself.
These peculiar paraneoplastic syndromes may be divided into endocrinologic, dermatologic, hematolog-ic, neurologic, and osteoarticular manifestations. Among the urologic cancers, renal cell carcinoma is the most often associated with paraneoplastic syndromes. In this review, the most common paraneoplastic syndromes associated with urologic cancers will be discussed.
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