Cure Urticaria Naturally

Full Urticaria Cure

Natural Urticaria And Angioedema Treatment was created by Dr. Gary M Levin, who has many years of experience in studying hives treatments. Dr. Gary claims that the program has been time-tested and is the result of long-term scientific studies. It can help treat all Urticaria, Angioedema and many other skin problems you might be suffering from. Full Urticaria Cure allows the body to fight the disease naturally so that your body can become immune to such disease and you can stay healthy for the rest of your life. It offers information on various other health and nutritional issues that can help a person to live their live with total confidence. Read more...

Full Urticaria Cure Summary


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Urticaria And Angioedema

Urticaria, or hives, is a cutaneous IgE-mediated reaction marked by the development of pruritic, erythemic wheals of varying size that generally disappear quickly. Erythema multiforme is a more pronounced urticarial variant, characterized by typical target lesions. Angioedema is believed to be an IgE-mediated reaction characterized by edema formation in the dermis, most generally involving the face and neck. These manifestations may accompany many allergic reactions. As with all allergic manifestations, a detailed history of exposures, ingestions, medications, and infections and a family history should be obtained. If an etiologic agent can be identified, future reactions may be avoided. Treatment of these reactions is generally supportive and symptomatic, with attempts to identify and remove the offending agent. Epinephrine, antihistamines, and steroids are most often tried. Oral antihistamines and steroids for several days may be beneficial. The addition of an H 2 receptor blocker,...

Open patch test and the diagnosis of contact urticaria

Some food substances can induce an immediate urticarial-type reaction at the point of contact. No standardised test exists for investigating such contact urticaria, but one can demonstrate such a reaction by an open test. The substance is placed on the skin of the flexor surface of the forearm for 30-45 minutes in an attempt to replicate the urticaria. It may be necessary to use non-intact, eczematous skin. This contact urticaria may be secondary to an allergic or non-allergic reaction. In the non-allergic type no previous sensitisation has taken place the individual does not have specific IgE to the substance. The urticaria occurs because of non-immunological release of vasoactive substances in the skin. Substances that may affect the skin by this mechanism include acetic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, sorbic acid and balsam of Peru. Contact urticaria can also be mediated by allergic mechanisms, chiefly specific IgE mediated. Foods capable of causing a reaction in such sensitised...

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Anp

ANP is degraded outside and inside the cell by extracellular proteases and NPR-C-dependent internali-zation and degradation, respectively. The extracellular NEP 24.11 is a metallopeptidase that degrades all three natriuretic peptides. Recently, compounds have been developed that inhibit both angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and NEP. Omapatrilat, the most studied of these so-called vasopeptidase inhibitors, has the combined benefit of prolonging the blood pressure decreasing effects of natriuretic peptides while inhibiting the blood pressure increasing effects of the angiotensin system. Although early indications from clinical trials suggested that these drugs are beneficial to some patients with hypertension and or congestive heart failure, very recent studies indicate that patients receiving vasopeptidase inhibitors experience more angioedema than patients treated with ACE inhibitors. Therefore, further development is needed before

Erythema multiforme and toxic epidermal necrolysis

Papulocrusting dermatitis, urticaria-angioedema, erythema multiforme Multifocal alopecia, pruritus, toxic epidermal necrolysis Urticaria-angioedema Pemphigus foliaceus-like disease Atrophy, fragility Angioedema Erythema, alopecia, angioedema Alopecia erosions Erythema, angioedema Methaemoglobinaemia

False food allergy or pseudoallergy

These types of reaction outnumber the true immunologically mediated ones. Various clinical syndromes are also known to be induced by such reactions, for example chronic urticaria, anaphylactic shock, intermittent diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome, migraines, rhinitis and asthma. Table 3 lists some of the substances and mechanisms implicated in false food reactions.

Chapter References

Slater EE, Merrill DD, Guess HA Clinical profile of angioedema associated with ACE inhibition. JAMA 260 967, 1988. 15. Roberts JR, Wuerz RC Clinical characteristics of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema. Ann Emerg Med 20 555, 1991. 16. Cicardi M, Bergamaschini L, Cugno M, et al Long-term treatment of hereditary angioedema with attenuated adrogens A survey of a 13-year experience. J Allergy Clin Immunol 87 768, 1991. 17. Waytes AT, Rosen FS, Frank MM Treatment of hereditary angioedema with a vapor-heated C1 inhibitor concentrate. N Engl J Med 334 1630, 1996.

Type I hypersensitivity

Reinjcction of fish antigen immediately triggered a wheal and a flare at the site of reinjection. This observation goes back to 1921. It is surprising that the term allergy or atopy (altered reactivity) has become synonymous with a type I hypersensitivity only in more recent times when the term 'allergen' was introduced for proteins and chemicals responsible for this reaction, and the term 'anaphylaxis' was established for the resulting generalized immune reaction. The localized form of anaphylaxis is exemplified by hay fever, asthma, eczema and urticaria (skin wheals). The systemic anaphylaxis characterized by sudden shock and dyspnea, frequently leading to death, occurs in extremely sensitive individuals.

Topical Agent Vehicle Considerations

Generalized involvement and do not require specialty care classic examples include urticaria and angioedema, acute varicella, and toxicodendron dermatitis. If the diagnosis is in question in the patient with a generalized rash consider the need for dermatologic consultation.

Principal Mechanisms and Pathophysiology of Food Intolerance

The term 'allergy' implies a definite immunological mechanism. This could be antibody mediated, cell mediated, or due to circulating immune complexes. The clinical features of an allergic reaction include urticaria (nettle rash), angioedema, rhinitis (sneezing, nasal discharge, blocked nose), worsening of pre-existing atopic eczema, asthma (wheezing, coughing, tightness of the chest, shortness of Sodium nitrite Another pharmacological effect occurs when unusually large quantities of sodium nitrite are ingested. Sodium nitrite is an antioxidant used as an antibacterial agent, and in quantities of 20 mg or more it can cause dilatation of blood vessels causing flushing and headache, and urticaria.

Role Of Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis In Food Allergens Analysis

Figure 1 Crossed immunoelectrophoresis of serum from a patient with chronic urticaria and angioedema. The separating electrophoretic step was done in the presence of Ca2', and the second electrophoretic step was performed with a mixture of anti-C1s and anti-C1r in the gel and with (A) EDTA or (B) Ca2 in the buffer. (Reproduced with permission of Georg Thieme Publishers, Stuttgart, from Opferkuch W, Rother K and Schultz DR (eds) (1978) Clinical Aspects of the Complement System.) Investigation of the CI inhibitor by the rocket technique in a patient with hereditary angioedema using anti-Cl inhibitor in the gel showed a very high and thin precipitate, indicating a molecular structure partially different from that of normal CI inhibitor (Figure 2). Further analysis showed that the nonfunctioning inhibitor of the patient was complexed with albumin. The high, rather thin rockets can be explained by masking of antigenic determinants on the CI inhibitor molecule, resulting in fewer sites able...

Treating the immediate symptoms 551 Acute allergic reactions to foods

The severity of reaction depends on sensitivity of the patients to food allergen and the amount ingested. Patients with life-threatening symptoms such as respiratory difficulty due to laryngeal oedema or severe bronchospasm and or hypotension should be regarded as having a severe reaction or anaphylaxis.13 Troublesome, but not immediately life-threatening, reactions such as generalised urticaria angioedema and bronchospasm of moderate severity may be termed severe allergic reactions. Sometimes the reaction is mild and confined to an organ or system, for instance oral or gastrointestinal symptoms or localised urticaria.

Africanized Honey Bees

Away from their hives, AHBs forage similarly to European honey bees (EHBs), can be used for pollinating crops, and produce good honey yields if managed carefully. However, their propensity to defend their nests extremely quickly, with very large number of stinging bees, makes them inappropriate for the type of beekeeping that is practiced in the United States. Fortunately, there is a segment of the commercial beekeeping industry that produces new queens, mated outside of areas colonized by AHBs. These new queens may be substituted for old queens or for queens of unsuitable stocks, but only after the old queen has been found and removed from the colony. The worker bee population will be converted fully to offspring of the new queen in about six weeks.

Food Intolerance and Allergy

Many people eat a variety of foods and show no ill effects however, a few people exhibit adverse reactions to certain foods. Food sensitivities refer to the broad concept of individual adverse reactions to foods. Food sensitivities are reproducible, unpleasant reactions to specific food or food ingredients. There are many types of adverse reactions to foods, e.g., hives, headaches, asthma, and gastrointestinal complaints. Food sensitivities can be divided into primary and secondary sensitivities (Table 10.1). in the blood stream are called basophils. Basophils and mast cells contain granules filled with active chemicals (mediators) thatcanbereleasedduringanallergicor inflammatory response. The mechanism hypersensitivity (Type I Figure 10.1), is composed of two major events. The first event or sensitization is when an allergen(antigen)isconsumed.Otherroutes of exposure can be portals for Serum concentration of IgE is low comparedwiththatofotherimmunoglobulins, and its serum half-life...

Effects on Particular Organs or Organ Systems

The skin suffers toxic effects itself, including cancer, primary irritation, allergic reactions, hair loss, pigment disturbances, ulceration, and chloracne. Dermatitis is an inflammation of the dermis. Irritant contact dermatitis and allergic dermatitis can both be caused by exposure to chemicals and produce similar symptoms, including hives, rashes, blistering, eczema, or skin thickening. The difference between them is that a true allergy takes time to develop, typically at least two weeks whereas irritation does not require a previous exposure. For example, no one reacts to poison ivy when first exposed. Only after a second or subsequent exposure does the itchy rash develop.

Immediate and Nonimmediate Reactions to Contrast Media

Mild immediate reactions occur in 0.7 -3.1 of patients receiving lower-osmolar nonionic CM (Brok-kow et al. 2005a). Pruritus and mild urticaria are the most common immediate manifestations. More severe reactions involve the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The frequency of nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions appears to range from 1 to 3 , and skin reactions of the maculopapular exanthematous and urti-carial angioedematous types account for the majority of them. At present, the exact pathogenesis of these delayed reactions is still unclear. There is, however, increasing evidence that a significant proportion of the reactions is T cell-mediated (Christiansen et al. 2000). Skin reactions of the maculopapular exanthematous and urticarial angioedematous types account for the majority of nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to CM. There is increasing evidence that a significant proportion of the reactions are T cell-mediated (Christiansen et al. 2000). Skin tests have been...

Characteristics of patients with food intolerance

Briefly, intolerance reactions are more common in adults and a wide range of responsible foods and symptoms induced are demonstrated.11,12 It must be remembered that not all IgE-mediated disease occurs immediately. There is a well-described phenomenon of late-phase IgE reactions with late urticaria (itchy hives) and oedema (swelling) within the first 24 hours of exposure to the foods. It can be difficult to distinguish clinically this 24-48 hour reaction from that which is caused by non-IgE-mediated immunological reactions such as those that cause an exacerbation of eczema. Often the temporal association with a dietary exposure to allergen is the only clue.

Caterpillars And Moths Lepidoptera

There are at least 10 families of venomous caterpillars and moths. Stinging moths are found in the southern United States that can cause an illness termed lepidoterism. Some caterpillars possess hollow spines among their hairs that contain urticating poisons that can cause symptoms ranging from local dermatitis to generalized systemic reactions. The puss caterpillar or woolly slug, larval stage of the moth Megalopyge opercularis, is perhaps the most toxic variety in the United States and is especially hazardous for children who tend to find it intriguing and thus handle it. 18 Puss caterpillars are found primarily in the southeastern states and especially in Texas and Florida. The venom of the puss caterpillar can induce hemolysis and increase vascular permeability. The venom of the flannel moth caterpillar (L. crispata), saddleback caterpillar (Sibine stimulae), range caterpillar (A. io), and oak slug (E. delphinii) is not as toxic, tending to produce only urticaria. The gypsy moth...

Occupation and smoking

Respiratory diseases have known associations with those working in the food and food-related industries. These include occupational asthma, occupational rhinitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Skin diseases such as contact dermatitis and contact urticaria are also associated with work in these industries.

Antihistamines firstgeneration H1 antagonists and H2 antagonists

Summary of data from randomised controlled trials of the treatment of acute urticaria Intensity of urticaria (physician, VAS) IM in the treatment of acute urticaria Presence of urticaria at baseline and after Presence of urticaria after 2 hours 16.2 v8-3 More urticaria patients receiving diphenhydramine + Urticaria - pharyngeal tissue swelling, and Incidence of diary-reported symptoms typical for acute urticaria Cumulative Incidence of urticaria 16-2 1 5-8 during 18-month treatment (P

Commonly reported food allergies 1031 Cows milk

Cows' milk is an important weaning food in many countries. In recent years it has become practically ubiquitous, being found in an increasing range of commercially produced foods (Sampson 1998). There is extensive cross-reactivity between milks of different species (Businco et al. 1995, Carroccio et al. 1999). Cows' milk is one of the first foods to enter an infant's diet and therefore is often the first to cause problems. Adverse reactions to cows' milk can be divided into two main groups, immunological (IgE or non-IgE mediated) or non-immunolo-gical (Host et al. 1997, Host and Halken 1998). This latter group is mainly due to lactase deficiency and may be difficult to differentiate clinically from non-IgE mediated cows' milk allergy (Host et al. 1997, Bruinjzeel-Koomen et al. 1995). Cows' milk allergy gives rise to a spectrum of disease from immediate symptoms ranging from urticaria to anaphylaxis (Goldman et al. 1963, Sampson et al. 1992) and late symptoms which may not develop for...


Crossed immunoelectrophoresis has been used to study Cl and Cl activation in various diseases with an immunological background. Figure 1 shows the findings with serum from a patient with chronic urticaria and angioedema. Electrophoresis was run with monospecific antisera against the Cl subcomponents and with Ca21 present in the first step and with EDTA in the second step. Two separate precipitation arcs appeared at the application site, representing Clr and Cls of the native Cl complex. Two separate precipitation arcs appeared also in the region, caused by Clr and Cls, which were present in the serum as a complex of 'free' Clr-Cls in zymogen form. The third precipitate appearing in the a region was caused by increased amounts of complexes between Clr-Cls and Cl inhibitor. Performance of both the electrophoretic steps in the presence of Ca2' resulted in a depressed, 'filled' precipitation arc in the region, indicating the dependence upon Ca2' for the complexing between Clr and Cls....

Antibodies against plasma proteins

Most important are antibodies against IgA, which mainly occur in IgA-deficient subjects. Most of the antibodies are directed against nonpolymorphic epitopes on the al or a2 chains but anti-allotypic (A2m) antibodies may also occur. The interaction of these antibodies with donor IgA, even if very small quantitites are transfused, can cause a severe anaphylactic reaction which may be fatal. Patients with such antibodies can be transfused with red celis which have been washed six times. For other blood components it is necessary to select IgA-deficient donors. Also, A2m antibodies may occur in poly-transfused patients. The reaction caused by them is much less severe, urticaria usually being the only symptom. The extent to which antibodies against other plasma proteins may cause transfusion reactions is controversial.

Gesundheit and gnight The multiple responses to allergies

Some cells in the immune system cause the release of histamines, chemicals that cause the sneezing, runny nose, hives, itching, fatigue, and other symptoms of allergies. Histamines can also cause constriction of the bronchials (tubes that feed air into the lungs) that lead to the wheezing in asthma. In severe reactions, this tightening of the breathing tubes can be life-threatening.

Henoch Schonlein Purpura

Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is a disease that manifests symptoms of purple spots on the skin, joint pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, and glomerulone-phritis. HSP is a type of hypersensitivity vasculitis and inflammatory response within the blood vessel. It is caused by an abnormal response of the immune system. The exact cause for this disorder is unknown. The syndrome is usually seen in children, but people of any age maybe affected. It is more common in boys than in girls. Many people with HSP had an upper respiratory illness in the previous weeks. Purpuric lesions are usually over the buttocks, lower legs, and elbows. Besides purpuric lesions, nephritis, angioedema, joint pains, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and he-matochezia can be seen. The scrotum can also be affected in 13 -35 of cases (Ioannides and Turnock 2001). While the testis and or scrotum can rarelybe involved, usually the scrotum is diffusely tender with erythema distributed all over the scrotum....

Diagnosis of drug allergy

Cutaneous reactions Urticaria and angioedema Toxic epidermal neurolysls Stevens-Johnson erythema multiforme Fixed drug eruption Pleiomorphic eruptions Contact hypersensitivity Cytopenias Pneumonitis Myocarditis Hepatitis Nephritis A rapidly expanding array of immunodiagnostic tests has been developed for the detection of specific responses to antimicrobial drugs and selected other classes of drugs. These include tests for IgE (by immediate wheal and flare skin tests, radioallergo-sorbent-RAST tests and leukocyte histamine release tests), IgG, IgM and IgA (primarily by ELISA), and specific lymphocytes (lymphocyte transformation tests). The presence of IgE to a drug that was given shortly before the onset of anaphylaxis, urticaria or angioedema provides strong evidence of a causal role. The presence of IgG, IgM, IgA or specific lymphocyte responses are much less closely related to clinical allergic disease - these responses are detectable in many individuals who do not have overt...

Disorders associated with food allergens

Among the quick-onset reactions, swelling of the lips and tongue, often associated with urticaria and angioedema, are the most common however, respiratory manifestations also frequently occur, mainly in the form of asthma, cough and stuffy nose. A family history of atopy is often present in such infants and these types of clinical reaction usually correspond to IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, which can be analyzed by means of prick tests and the determination of specific antibodies. Among the slow-onset reactions, food-sensitive enteropathies are the most frequent and also the most difficult to diagnose, especially because of the late onset of the reactions after the ingestion of the incriminated food (sometimes 1-3 days) and the numerous other causes which show a similar clinical picture. According to several clinical studies, the frequency of food-mediated asthma varies from 0.3 to 8.4 of asthma in patients aged under 15 years of age and is somewhat less frequent in adults. It is of...

Pulmonary Angiography

Pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for accurately diagnosing PE. The disadvantages include patient discomfort, cost, and complications. Pulmonary angiography has excellent interobserver reliability the PIOPED study found that review of study angiograms by another radiologist reached the same diagnosis in 96 percent of cases.8 Complications of pulmonary angiography include (1) fatalities in 0.5 percent, (2) major nonfatal complications such as renal failure, significant hematoma, or respiratory distress in 17 percent, and (3) minor complications such as angina, urticaria, or bronchospasm in 5 percent. 8

Other symptomatic treatment

Ketotifen with antihistaminic and anti-inflammatory properties has been used in food allergic reactions such as urticaria and bronchospasm. It may be useful as an additional therapy in some patients. Beta-2 agonists such as salbutamol or terbutalin may be used when bronchospasm is a prominent feature in an allergic reaction. These drugs can be delivered by inhalation through a metered dose inhaler, in an aerosol form through a nebuliser, or by intravenous route. Food-related eczema and rhinitis should be treated along the standard line with topical steroids and antihistamine in addition to allergen avoidance.

Clinical reactions to drugs

Stratification of clinical allergic reactions to drugs according to the immunopathologic scheme of Gell and Coombs can be considered. Type I IgH-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions do occur in the forms of anaphylaxis, urticaria and angioedema, but some drugs can induce these reactions via complement activation or direct pharmacologic effects. Type II cytotoxic reactions occur, for example immune cytopenias, but most cell-destructive or tissue-inflammatory reactions to drugs are difficult to distinguish from type III and in some cases type IV reactions. Adding to the complexity of using a pathophysiologic stratification scheme is the frequent concurrence of multiple immunopathologic mechanisms. Sulfonamides, cefaclor and other commonly used drugs can induce reactions that include urticaria, fever, joint inflammation and variable vascular and solid tissue disorders that defy this form of stratification.

Allergy to food additives20

An additive is a substance added to foods for preservation, coloration and some other purposes. Additives are numerous and include benzoates, metabisulphites and azodyes. The prevalence of adverse reaction to additives is 0.03-0.5 . Adverse reactions to additives occur in 20-25 of patients with aspirin intolerance and in 10-20 with chronic recurrent urticaria. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, resulting in acute allergic reaction, has been described for azodyes, ethylene oxide and penicillin, and delayed-type hypersensitivity for nickel salt. A list should be provided of foods containing the additive that the patient does not tolerate. Clear labelling of packaged food helps to avoid accidental exposure.

IgE Antibodies against nonhuman antigens

In patients who are allergic to an allergen, an allergic reaction occurs if the donor plasma contains the allergen. This may particularly occur if it concerns food allergens, which may be present in the donor plasma after consumption of the food involved. The patient develops urticaria. The reactions can be prevented, in the case of red cell concentrates, by washing the cells three times. Very rarely a similar reaction is induced by donor IgE antibodies against an allergen which at the time of the transfusion is present in the patient.

Asking an answerable question By

This may at first seem to be the domain of the dermatologist, yet the advent of the internet and many high-quality skin information websites has transformed this. Many patients now come to their first dermatology consultation armed with pages printed out from the internet. They may sometimes correctly self-diagnose conditions such as cold urticaria when even their family doctor was unsure. Whilst it is true that much of the information on the internet is of dubious value as a result of various vested interests and the lack of explicit criteria used to develop it, the internet can be a useful source of information for many rare and common skin diseases. In this sense, the consumer can play a useful role by helping their dermatologist to search for information that may be relevant to the evidence-based question.

Comment implications for clinical practice

Generally the available therapeutic evidence for acute urticaria is quantitatively and qualitatively weak. RCTs of the therapeutic efficacy of the second-generation antihistamines are lacking, although one would like to consider these the first choice of therapy based on the studies in chronic urticaria.3 There is some evidence that the combination of H1 and H2 antagonists has additional beneficial effects. A short-term intervention with corticosteroids seems to be superior to a treatment with antihistamines alone, but should be considered in the context of individual needs.

Mercuryinduced immune systemrelated disease in humans

Although a toxic influence of mercury on the human kidney is well known, the evidence for a possible immunological damage to kidney function remains weaker. An interesting observation in mice is upregulation of Ly-6 (the murine equivalent of human CD59), a possible target molecule in allore sponses, by mercuric chloride. Furthermore, there is extensive cross-reaction between BN rat and human GBM antigens. It has been suggested, therefore, that mercury may also induce autoimmune glomerulonephritis in humans. Both subnormal levels and increased levels of immunoglobulins and some other serum proteins have been reported in workers exposed to mercury. There have also been reports of immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions (urticaria, anaphylaxis, asthma) linked to mercury.

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Contrast Reactions

Treatment Contrast Anaphylactic

From a clinical perspective, acute reactions to contrast agents can be classified in the following types (1) nausea and or vomiting, (2) urticaria (hives) without respiratory symptoms, (3) bronchospasm (wheezing) without cutaneous or cardiovascular manifestations, (4) isolated hypotension, (5) vagal reaction, (6) isolated laryngeal edema, and (7) generalized anaphylactoid reaction.14 Clinically, an anaphylactoid reaction is characterized by a severe or rapidly accelerating combination of one or more of the following bronchospasm, generalized urticaria, angioedema, laryngeal spasm or edema, and hypotension with tachycardia (shock). T M ,29.4i8. presents one approach to the treatment of acute contrast reactions. Contrast reactions may also have nonspecific manifestations, such as pulmonary edema, angina, seizure, or hypertensive urgency. Such reactions should be treated with standard therapies and protocols (see Chap 30).

Background Definition

Usual synonyms for urticaria are hives or nettle rash , according to the German term Nesselsucht , which focuses on the typical reactions following skin contact with the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). The primary lesions of this monomorphic exanthematous disease are hives or wheals, which are defined as circumscribed white- to pink-coloured compressible skin elevations produced by dermal oedema. Accompanying erythemas in the surrounding area are typical. Pathophysiologically the wheal can be characterised by local vasodilatation and increase of permeability of capillaries and small venules, followed by transudation of plasma constituents into the papillary and upper reticular dermis. Among a large number of substances, such as kinins, leukotrienes, prostaglandins or proteolytic enzymes, histamine is the best known elicitor of typical wheal-and-flare reactions. Eruptions of urticarial lesions are usually associated with intense pruritus. Although the disease may be easily diagnosed...

Clinical features of a major haemolytic reaction

Haemolytic shock phase - this may start within minutes after a few millilitres of blood have been transfused or may take 1-2 h after the end of the transfusion to develop. Symptoms include urticaria, lower backache, flushing, headache, shortness of breath, precordial pain and hypotension. These symptoms may be difficult to identify in the anaesthetized patient or the unconscious intensive therapy unit (ITU) patient. Laboratory examinations will reveal evidence of blood cell destruction, jaundice and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Urinalysis will demonstrate haemoglobinuria.

Other treatments and nonrandomised trials

An early case series of five patients with acute urticaria following insect stings reported good therapeutic effects of intravenous cimetidine 300 mg initially followed by 300 mg orally four times daily) after ineffective administration of epinephrine (adrenaline), H1 antagonists and corti-costeroids.11 A further report investigated the effect of flunarizine, a calcium antagonist, in the treatment of acute urticaria. In this uncontrolled trial 20 patients received a single 10 mg sublingual dose of flunarizine. After 3 hours 16 patients had improved, with effects being more pronounced for itching than for reduction of wheals. Four patients remained unresponsive and five other patients reported drowsiness as a major side-effect.12 A Chinese publication describes the therapeutic effect of the added ingredient of Radix angelicae sinesis in 106 patients with acute urticaria. Unfortunately, the lack of an abstract in English makes it difficult to draw conclusions.13

Pathological alterations of the classical pathway

The functioning of the classical pathway is disrupted in many circumstances. These include genetic deficiencies of single components complete deficiencies of Clq, Clr, Cls, C4, C2, C3, factors H and I have been reported. These are associated with susceptibility to infection and or inappropriate deposition of immune complexes. Low concentrations of MBL are associated with poor opsonization of yeast and some bacteria, and with recurrent infection in infants. Diminished synthesis of Cl-inh, or synthesis of inactive Cl-inh mutants is the cause of hereditary angioedema, and causes secondary consumption of C2 and C4. Autoantibodies to Cl-inh have been reported, which destabilize the Cl-inh-protease complex releasing free active protease these give rise to autoimmune angioedema. Autoantibodies to C3 con-vertases, termed nephritic factors, occur in mem-branoproliferative glomerulonephritis. These generally recognize C3bBb, but a few reports indicate reactivity against C4b2a. They stabilize...

The idiopathic photodermatoses

This group of photosensitivity disorders includes polymorphic light eruption (PLE), hydroa vacciniforme, chronic actinic dermatitis (also called photosensitivity dermatitis and actinic reticuloid syndrome), solar urticaria, actinic prurigo and juvenile springtime eruption. The causes of each of these conditions remain unknown, although there are suggestions that the mechanism for some, especially PLE, might be autoimmune. For the purposes of this book, we discuss PLE, the commonest of these conditions on which there is the largest volume of published literature. Where appropriate, for example when discussing differential diagnosis, we mention other photodermatoses. Other photodermatoses such as cutaneous porphyrias, DNA-repair disorders (such as xeroderma pigmentosa) and drug induced photosensitivity will be dealt with in future editions of the book and accompanying website.

Clinical Features

The opioid toxidrome can encompass a wide variety of signs and symptoms. Opioids cause respiratory depression, mental status depression, analgesia, miosis, orthostatic hypotension, and nausea and vomiting, histamine release resulting in localized urticaria and occasionally bronchospasm, decreased gastrointestinal motility, and urinary retention secondary to increased vesical sphincter tone. The mental status depression can be variable but may be extremely profound. The respiratory depression may also be variable. One should look for shallow respirations, cyanosis, bradypnea, hypercarbia, and hypoxia. Miosis is not universally present. In fact, normal or even enlarged pupils have been documented secondary to exposure to meperidine, morphine, propoxyphene, pentazocine, and diphenoxylate this sign may be secondary to severe cerebral hypoxia and it may also be attributable to coingestants.

Angiotensinconverting Enzyme Inhibitors

Adverse effects of ACE inhibitors include hypotension, angioedema, rash, anaphylactoid reactions, cough, drug fever, proteinuria, glomerulopathy, neutropenia, and agranulocytosis. With overdoses of ACE inhibitors, the most important concern is hypotension, which can be profound. The preferred therapy to reverse the hypotension is the administration of normal saline, and, if necessary, vasopressors, such as intermediate or high-dose dopamine, can be added. Although ACE inhibitors are dialyzable, peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis are not recommended at this time. Naloxone has been reported to be useful in reversing the hypotension induced by captopril, although its mechanism is unclear.

Approach to food avoidance

Agranulocytosis Algorithm

Unconfirmed food intolerance (food known or suspected) If the food is known or suspected either from the history or from skin test or RAST, a trial exclusion diet is recommended. The period of exclusion depends, to some extent, on the type and frequency of reaction. If the subject is having frequent symptoms, for example urticarial episodes several times a week or diarrhoea, exclusion for a couple of weeks might be sufficient to gauge the response. For atopic eczema or chronic recurrent urticaria, a longer period, i.e. 2-3 months, may be required to assess improvement, allowing for spontaneous fluctuation in the disease severity. If significant improvement is observed on a trial exclusion diet, then open or DBPCFC should be performed.6 An open challenge or reintroduction of the food in the diet may be sufficient if an objective improvement has been observed, for example if the frequency and severity of urticaria or severity of eczema assessed objectively with a standardised score has...

Food Allergy

Untoward reactions to foods - especially cow's milk - were recognized in ancient times by Hippocrates and Galea. However, the first thorough clinical inquiries were undertaken at the beginning of the twentieth century, when chronic diarrhea and ana-phylactic-type reactions were observed in babies fed with cow's milk. Later, other types of clinical manifestations were described, e.g. urticaria, eczema, anemia and various respiratory tract and gastrointestinal problems, but the concept of immunologically mediated clinical reactions appeared only progressively, with the discovery of the immunoglobulins and an improved method for the detection of specific antibodies.


Subcutaneous or intramuscular adrenaline is used as the first-line treatment for anaphylactic reaction to food and other allergens.11 The intramuscular route is preferable if there is evidence of circulatory collapse, as the absorption is better than from the subcutaneous site. Patients who are at risk of anaphylactic reactions, for example those with nut allergies, should be provided with a self-injectable adrenaline device. This delivers a set dose of adrenaline by intramuscular route. The adult dose is 300 ig and the paediatric dose is 150 g repeatable after 15 minutes. Patients and their carers should be given instructions in the use of the device in case of emergency. When absorption from the intramuscular route is not adequate, for example in severe hypotension and shock, slow intravenous injection may be used by trained personnel. Inhaled adrenaline is not useful for the treatment of anaphylaxis. However, it may be effective for angioedema or laryngeal oedema in the absence of...

Barnard Endocarditis

The other major indication to use van-comycin has traditionally been in patients who are unable to tolerate P-lactams. Because of the superior efficacy of this class of antimicrobials, for patients with a questionable history of type 1, immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction to penicillin (e.g., urticaria, angioedema), skin testing should be performed to penicillin 52 . If

Nematodes Roundworms

TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS Trichinosis is common in Mexico and the United States and results from the consumption of infected pork and, less commonly, bear and walrus meat. In the early stages of infection with Trichinella spiralis, the patient may present with acute myocarditis, nonsuppurative meningitis, bronchopneumonia, or catarrhal enteritis. The primary lesions are in striated muscle. Clinical symptoms depend on the site of invasion. Patients may present with nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, fever, urticaria, periorbital edema, (pathognomonic) splinter hemorrhages, myalgia, muscle spasm, stiff neck, headache, and psychiatric disturbances. Laboratory manifestations of trichinosis include leukocytosis, eosinophilia, elevated creatine phosphokinase and electrocardiographic changes. The diagnosis can be confirmed with latex agglutination, skin test, and a bentonite flocculation test. Biopsy of tender muscle may be helpful after the fourth week. Since T. spiralis encysts in striated muscle,...


Although angioedema is clinically dissimilar to idiopathic edema in that the episodes of edema are acute and episodic, some have postulated a change in capillary permeability to protein in women with idiopathic edema 11 . In one series comparing normal subjects and patients with idiopathic edema, plasma albumin concentrations were lower in women with the disorder. A greater fractional turnover of albumin was deemed the cause in some, while a lower rate of albumin synthesis was observed in others. However, there is no convincing evidence that the disappearance rate of 125I-labeled albumin is greater in patients with idiopathic edema, although women have greater transcapillary protein flux than men when venous pressure is raised artificially. The decrease in plasma volume reported in some series may reflect obesity, which reduces calculated plasma volume when expressed as milliliters per kilogram of body weight.

Airway Obstruction

Degree Laryngeal Obstruction

Cause soft tissue swelling or themselves are soft tissue masses that compromise the upper airway, but a few need mentioning. Certain medical diseases like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and cystic fibrosis produce copious secretions in the upper airway that can lead to partial or complete occlusion. Angioedema may present with soft tissue swelling sufficient to preclude an oral airway, requiring a nasal pharyngeal airway, nasotracheal intubation, or surgical intervention to reestablish patency. Laryngospasm, the feared complication of any invasive airway technique, needs to be considered in any patient with a compromised airway, especially in children. It is defined as closure of the glottis by the constriction of intrinsic extrinsic laryngeal muscles, which can completely restrict ventilation. This pathophysiologic state often persists long after the stimulus has ceased. Laryngospasm may occur secondary to contact with the upper airway receptors on the tongue, palate, and...

Insulin controlled

Infection with the hepatitis B virus is much more serious than hepatitis A in that hepatic failure is more common, chronic damage is frequent, the disease is endemic in many parts of the world and some 10 of all those infected will become chronic carriers. The infection may be acquired by vertical transmission from mother to child in utero or in childhood or by heterosexual or homosexual contact or direct inoculation of body fluids. The virus is highly infective in small inoculates, unlike HIV. In countries with adequate blood transfusion services this route of transmission is now rare. The prodromal illness may be severe with arthralgia and urticaria followed by hepatocellular jaundice. The illness is not usually severe and the majority of patients clear the virus within a few weeks. All healthcare workers should be immunised against this condition, though occasionally the immunisation may have to be repeated several times.


The physical examination of a patient who lists urticaria and or angioedema as their symptom is often unremarkable. There should be a particular emphasis on the search for the signs of other systemic illnesses known to be associated with urticaria. Any urticarial lesion should be noted, such as an itchy well-demarcated raised area, often with surrounding erythema.

Insect Sting Allergy

Insect stings can produce significant and sometimes fatal reactions, particularly in sensitized patients. Approximately 100 patients die annually from insect sting reactions, making insect sting the second most common cause of fatal anaphylaxis. True stinging insects belong to the order Hymenoptera, which includes three families Apoidea (honeybee), Formicoidea (fire ants), and Vespidae (wasps, yellow jackets, and hornets). The venoms of each family are unique, although all have similar types of components, mostly proteins. This difference accounts for the limited cross-reactivity seen. The usual reaction to these stings includes localized pain, pruritus, swelling, and redness. Sensitized individuals may have exaggerated local reactions with or without systemic manifestations. Systemic reactions run from mild nausea and malaise to urticaria, angioedema, or anaphylaxis.

Latex Allergy

Latex allergy is a concern in children and adults with meningomyelocele. It occurs in 24 to 67 percent of children with meningomyelocele. Increasingly severe allergic-type reactions are being reported related to latex and latex-containing products. Reactions vary from mild local reactions to anaphylaxis. Children may present with local or generalized swelling, hives or edema, itching, or a rash. Runny nose or eyes, coughing, sneezing, wheezing, stridor, and difficulty swallowing or breathing also may be presenting complaints. 1314 and 15 A history of latex allergy or sensitivity should be obtained in all children with meningomyelocele prior to any examination or procedure in which latex gloves or other latex-containing supplies may be used. Many routine medical supplies contain latex, including frequently used

Drug Allergy

The clinical manifestations of drug allergy are widely varied and can involve all four types of hypersensitivity reactions. A generalized reaction similar to immune-complex or serum-sickness reactions is very common. Beginning usually in the first or second week after the administration of the drug, this reaction may take many weeks to subside after drug withdrawal. Generalized malaise, arthralgias, pruritus, urticarial eruptions, and fever are common. Drug fever may occur without other associated clinical findings and may also occur without an immunologic basis. Circulating immune complexes are probably responsible for the lupus-like reactions caused by some drugs. Cytotoxic reactions, such as penicillin-induced hemolytic anemia, can occur. Skin eruptions may include erythema, pruritus, urticaria, angioedema, erythema multiforme, and photosensitivity, and severe reactions, such as those seen in Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, may also occur. Pulmonary...

Methods of search2

Any RCT (meta-analysis, systematic review or Cochrane review) on acute and urticaria or hive or wheal or nettle and rash in electronic Which drugs are efficient and safe in the treatment of acute urticaria The search of the Cochrane Library and the other electronic databases did not reveal a systematic review or meta-analysis on acute urticaria. Recently a consensus report on the management of urticaria appeared as a result of a panel discussion during the clinically oriented European Society for Dermatological Research's symposium Urticaria 2000.3 Besides the elimination of eliciting stimuli, non-sedating H1 antihistamines were recommended as standard and initial treatment, with prednisolone 50 mg day for 3 days as alternative treatment. A further review, which appeared in 2001, describes the evidence-based evaluation of antihistamines in the treatment of urticaria.4 The paragraph on acute urticaria discusses two studies, which will also be presented in this chapter.2,5 Further...

Antihistamine Agents

Antihistamines (H1 antagonists) are frequently used in the management of dermatologic disease, particularly in the control of pruritus. These agents include diphenhydramine and hydroxyzine and are dosed using these guidelines for diphenhydramine, adult 25 to 50 mg po q6h children 4 to 6 mg kg 24 h po given q6 to 8h not to exceed 200 mg in 24 h and for hydroxyzine, adult 25 to 100 milligrams po q8h children 2 to 4 mg kg 24 h po q8 to 12h not to exceed 200 mg in 24 h. Parenteral H1 antagonists may also be used intramuscularly or intravenously. H 2 antagonists (e.g., ranitidine or famotidine) have also demonstrated some benefit in the patient with an allergic-mediated event, particularly urticaria. The second-generation antihistamine agents, including astemizole, cetirizine, fexofenadine, and loratadine, are newer agents that may be used in certain circumstances. In general, the newer antihistamines offer the advantages of reduced dosing frequency and less sedative effect, but they are...

B Blockers

The ACC AHA guidelines recommend that patients with AMI and ST-segment elevation in two or more anterior precordial leads or with clinical heart failure in the absence of contraindications receive treatment with ACE inhibitors.4 Contraindications to ACE inhibitors include hypotension, bilateral renal artery stenosis, renal failure, or history of cough or angioedema due to prior ACE inhibitor use. The efficacy of ACE inhibitors in unstable angina has not been well evaluated.

Ants Formicidae

Fire ants are characterized by their tendency to swarm when provoked and they may attack in great numbers. Most often fire ants in a swarm position themselves on their victim and sting simultaneously in response to an alarm pheromone released by one or several individuals. Each sting usually results in a papule, which becomes a sterile pustule in 6 to 24 h. Localized necrosis, scarring, and secondary infection can result. 8 There may be a systemic reaction manifested by urticaria and angioedema.

Food additives

The commonest food additives thought to cause adverse reactions are tartrazine (E102), sunset yellow (E110), annatto, aspartame, benzoic acid and sulphites (Fuglsang et al. 1993). Key epidemiological studies are shown in Table 10.9. Adverse reactions to food additives can occur at any age. A UK study showed a higher reporting of adverse reactions to food additives in the first ten years of life, and more often occurring in females (Young et al. 1987). The mechanism of the reaction is often unknown, and IgE-mediated reactions are rare. Questionnaire-based studies give a high 6.6-7.4 prevalence of self-reported adverse reactions to food additives in the general population. However, when food challenges are used to make the diagnosis, the prevalence falls to about 0.23 . One study shows the risk to be greatest in the atopic population, with no reactions observed in non-atopic individuals (Fuglsang et al. 1994). Virtually all reactions are minor and limited to the skin (worsening of...

Anaphylactic shock

Anaphylactic shock is the severest form of an allergic reaction in which a sensitized individual releases histamine in response to antigen exposure. This response leads to peripheral vasodilation and potentially hemodynamic instability (shock). Other symptoms include wheezing and respiratory distress, swelling of the throat and mucous membranes, itching, and urticaria.


Premedication with a steroid regimen has been shown in some studies to reduce the overall incidence of contrast reactions to both high- and low-osmolality agents. However, no controlled studies have been performed to determine whether premedication reduces the incidence of severe reactions. Most institutions prescribe premedication if there is a history of a significant (more than nausea, vomiting, or a few hives) reaction to a previous contrast injection. 6 Some institutions also premedicate if there is a history of severe allergy to any substance. There are no standard indications or protocols for premedication. Two commonly prescribed premedication regimens are listed in T ble ,2.,9.4.-4.7

Most common foods

The oral allergy syndrome discussed in Chapter 1 solely involves the oropharynx (mouth, tongue and throat). Patients describe the rapid onset of itching of the mouth and angioedema (swelling of the lips, tongue, palate and throat). This is generally followed by a rapid resolution of symptoms. They are most commonly associated with the ingestion of various fresh fruit and vegetables. Patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis ('hayfever') associated with airborne allergens are most commonly afflicted with this problem. Care must be exercised when taking the history that these symptoms were not in fact the herald of more generalised systemic symptoms.


Urticaria, angioedema, and toxicodendron and other contact allergic dermatitides are potential indications for systemic corticosteroids. Other dermatologic syndromes, such as erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and vasculitis, are best treated with systemic steroids only after consultation with a dermatologist. Eczema and psoriasis, both of which are chronic dermatologic conditions, are likely to rapidly improve after systemic steroid therapy. Both will also rebound as rapidly with discontinuation of treatment further, such management increases the possibility of development of pustular psoriasis. Oral prednisone has been used successfully in urticaria patients. In a recent small study, the addition of prednisone burst therapy (40 mg daily for 4 days) markedly reduced the pruritus and hastened the clinical improvement. The authors of this study felt that the patients' conditions improved more rapidly and more completely, and without apparent adverse effects, when...

Provocation Tests

A provocation test may be useful to confirm a history of allergy. An example might be a child who developed wheezing and urticaria minutes after eating a rusk that contained, as its main ingredients, wheat and cows' milk protein. To determine which component, if any, caused the reaction, oral challenges with individual components can be conducted. Effect of disease activity A food challenge performed during a quiescent phase of the disease (e.g., urticaria, eczema, or asthma) may fail to provoke an adverse reaction. Oral mucosal challenge A small portion of food is applied to the mucosa inside the mouth, and one looks for reactions such as swelling of the lips, and tingling or irritation of the mouth or tongue, possibly followed by other more generalized symptoms such as urticaria, asthma, vomiting, abdominal pain, or anaphylactic shock. Patients with food intolerance commonly make use of these oral symptoms, spitting out and avoiding further consumption of a food that provokes the...


Atopy is the ability to produce a weal-and-flare response to skin prick testing with a common antigen, such as house dust mite or grass pollen. The atopic diseases are asthma (all childhood cases but not all adult cases), atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and some cases of urticaria.


In the treatment of food allergy, antihistamines are given primarily to relieve symptoms such as itching and urticaria due to inadvertent exposure. Oral symptoms, such as itching in the mouth and throat and swelling, may also respond but there is little effect on gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhoea. For mild symptoms, oral antihistamine may be effective and may be continued until symptoms disappear. For moderate to severe allergic reactions, antihistamine should be given through the parentral route for rapid systemic availability. Occasionally antihistamines are used regularly for chronic food allergic symptoms where causative food(s) have not been identified.

Mast cells

Although functionally akin to basophils, they are long living and thought to belong to the tissue macrophage family. They are not phagocytic and do not present antigen to lymphocytes. Upon binding of foreign antigen to its membrane receptors, degranulation occurs with release of histamine, heparin and other vasoactive peptides. Activation also results in the release of leukotrienes (LT) from the surface membrane. Mast cells are important effector cells of many of the manifestations of hypersensitivity or allergic reactions, such as urticaria, rhinitis and bronchospasm.

Safety Issues

For some people, proteins in cow's milk may trigger allergic reactions. Whey proteins (beta-lactoglobulin and beta-lact-albumin) and casein are the primary proteins that trigger allergic reactions. Symptoms of a milk allergy may include nasal congestion, hives, itching, swelling, wheezing, shortness of breath, nausea, upset


Angiotensine Neprilysin

In the kidney, the endopeptidase neprilysin constitutes significant peptidase activity, particularly within the brush border region of the proximal tubules. Similar to ACE and ACE2, neprilysin is a zinc-dependent metallopeptidase that is anchored to the apical or extracellular region of the membrane, but is apparently resistant to enzymatic shedding. Although neprilysin was initially recognized for its enkephalin-degrading activity and frequently referred to as enkephalinase , studies now reveal that this enzyme contributes to the metabolism of various peptides with cardiovascular actions including adrenomedullin, angiotensins, kinins, endothelins, substance P and the natriuretic peptides (Skidgel & Erdos 2004). Indeed, the development of neprilysin inhibitors, and more recently, dual or mixed inhibitors that target ACE as well remain potential therapies in cardiovascular disease (Veelken & Schmieder 2002). In general, these dual inhibitors were either equally or more effective in...


There is good evidence that almost all severe reactions to insect venoms are IgE mediated. These range from extensive subcutaneous swelling contiguous with the sting site (large local reactions) to fatal anaphylaxis. In several studies specific IgE antibodies against venom were demonstrated in blood from all victims of fatal sting anaphylaxis. Uncommon reactions to venoms include a serum sickness-like syndrome, recurrent cold urticaria, and a nonimmuno-logic mediator release that mimics anaphylaxis in patients with mast cell disorders like urticaria pigmentosa. IgE antibodies in patients can be detected by either intradermal skin testing with 1 p.gml_1 or lower concentrations of venom or by in vitro tests for specific IgE antibodies. High concentrations of venom may give nonspecific skin reactions because of the mediator and basic peptide contents of venoms. Sting challenge is used as a research tool for diagnosis and evaluation of immunotherapy. Approximately 50-60 of untreated...

Emergency Treatment

The patient having an anaphylactic reaction, as defined by airway compromise or hypotension, is a true medical emergency and must be rapidly assessed and treated. Exposure to the causative agent, if identified, must be terminated if ongoing. Vital signs, intravenous (IV) access, oxygen, cardiac monitoring, and pulse oximetry measurements should be ordered immediately. Securing the airway is the first priority. The airway should be examined for angioedema. If angioedema is producing respiratory distress, the patient should be intubated immediately, since delay may result in complete airway obstruction secondary to progression of angioedema. An endotracheal tube one or more sizes smaller than normal may be needed.10 The patient should be given sufficient oxygen to maintain a pulse oximetry value greater than 92 . Intubation is indicated if hypoxemia is refractory to 100 oxygen therapy. For less severe signs, such as decreasing blood pressure without hypotension systolic blood pressure...

Clinical Symptoms

Vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as epigastric distress, headache, and burning sensation of the throat. This can be followed by neurological numbness, tingling, cutaneous flushing, and urticaria. Symptoms subside in ca. 16 h and generally there are no lasting ill effects. Diagnosis of the illness is usually based on the patient's symptoms, time of onset, and the effect of treatment with antihistamine medication. The onset of intoxication symptoms is rapid, ranging from immediate to 30 min. The duration of the illness is usually 3 h, but may last several days. To confirm a diagnosis, the suspected food must be analyzed within a few hours for elevated levels of histamine.


The European multicentre study ETAC (Early Treatment of the Atopic Child) investigated the preventive effect of long-term (18 months) administration of cetirizine 0-25 mg kg twice daily in 1-2-year-old children with atopic eczema and positive family history of allergies.14 On addition to the primary endpoint (asthma), symptoms typical for acute urticaria were recorded in a diary during the intervention period and a 6-month follow up. During the intervention period significantly fewer episodes of acute urticaria (5-8 ) were reported in the intervention group compared with the placebo arm (16-2 ). This effect did not persist after medication was stopped (3-0 versus 4-6 ).14

Clinical effects

The clinical effects of type I hypersensitivity depend upon the site of the reaction involvement of the nose and or lungs results in rhinitis and or asthma skin involvement causes urticaria. Atopic eczema involves IgE-mediated allergy, although the histology resembles a type IV hypersensitivity reaction. It is possible that an initial type I mechanism causes increased vascular permeability, allowing the influx of lymphocytes. Type I reactions to food can cause immediate reactions involving itching and swelling of the lips, mouth and tongue or may lead to nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, usually within an hour of ingestion. Where the allergen is injected sys-temically, as in insect stings and intravenous infusions, and occasionallyjn a very sensitive subject following ingestion, there may be overwhelming basophil degranulation causing anaphylaxis. This involves massive vasodilatation with a sudden drop in blood pressure and collapse. Other symptoms include bronchospasm, an itchy...

Mast cell tumours

Eruption of the ventrum, head, neck and extremities. The histological findings included perivascular and superficial dermatitis, and subcuticular infiltrates of numerous mast cells consistent with urticaria pigmentosa. Therapy options include antihistamines and glucocorticoids.


Allergy was originally defined in 1906 by Clemens von Pirquet as 'altered reactivity' to denote the different reaction which occurs on second exposure to an antigen, due to the formation of antibodies, when compared to the first exposure. Used in this way the term covered all imune reactions however, its use has since become restricted to certain hypersensitivity reactions. The term atopy (from the Greek 'out of place') was introduced by Coca and Cooke in 1923. They had observed that certain disorders, such as asthma, eczema and urticaria, run in families and that affected subjects show positive wheal and flare skin reactions to common inhalant antigens, but lack precipitating antibodies.

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