Vegan Starter Guide
Dietary Veganism In all situations resulting from impairment of cobalamin absorption, the time to onset of deficiency depends on several factors, including the size of the body store, the extent of impairment of absorption (partial or complete), and, in diseases like pernicious anemia and others affecting all of the intestine, the rate of progression of the disease. In general, however, cobalamin deficiency resulting from malabsorption develops sooner (2-5 years) than is the case in the dietary deficiency encountered among vegans (10-20 years). This difference may be explained by the existence of a considerable enter-ohepatic recirculation of cobalalmin. Biliary cobala-min is efficiently reabsorbed in vegans compared with patients who have pernicious anemia or other forms of malabsorption.
Pet keeping is particularly common among middle-childhood children (around 8 to 12 years) (see COMPANION ANIMALS AND PETS). This is probably the age at which children's emotional interest in animals is at its highest and when, especially for girls, big-eyed, cuddly, furry animals are particularly attractive. After this age, in the teenage years, interest in moral issues surrounding animals and their use by humans becomes more prominent. This is the time when young people are most likely to take ''stands'' on animal issues (and, indeed, other issues such as political ones) by, for example, adopting vegetarian or vegan diets (see VEGETARIANISM) or becoming involved in environmental or animal rights* campaigns. As interests outside the home take prominence in teenagers' lives, interest and involvement in pet keeping often wane a little. But childhood experience of pets nevertheless appears to retain an influence. In an recent study it was found that university students who had grown up...
Work by Hardinge and colleagues in 1958, studying crude fibre intake in vegans, omnivores and vegetarians, was confirmed by Burkitt et al. in 1972. It showed that a vegan consumed 23.9 g of fibre a day, a vegetarian 16.3 g and an omnivore 10.7 g. Further studies by Davies and Dickerson (1994) suggested that not only is fibre intake in vegans and vegetarians higher, but also these groups have an improved bowel habit. Although there is an alteration in obtaining energy in vegetarian diets - from carbohydrate because fat is decreased within the diet - those who are vegans need to plan diets carefully so that nutritional status is not compromised.
Table 17.6 Haemoglobin levels (g l) in a group of vegans before and after vitamin B12 supplementation Table 17.6 Haemoglobin levels (g l) in a group of vegans before and after vitamin B12 supplementation As an example, we will consider (Table 17.6) some changes that occurred in haemoglobin levels in a group of vegans when given vitamin B12 supplementation. The study was paired, each individual providing a pre-treatment blood sample and then a further sample after 4 weeks of supplementation.
The potential effect of adapting to a high-phytate diet on mineral bioavail-ability has been tested in animals through intervention studies and in humans through population studies. No intestinal adaptation to a high-phytate diet was found for iron. Weanling rats adapted to either soy or wheat flour diets did not have improved ability to absorb iron from a soy test meal compared to rats adapted to chicken or casein diets 68 . In fact, rats adapted to casein had superior 59Fe retention. Neither were vegans adapted to high-phytate diets able to absorb iron from wheat rolls with or without added bran better than a control group 69 .
Vegans are at risk of low serum 25(OH)D3 and the pathologic changes mentioned above for the elderly unless they consume a supplement of vitamin D and calcium because plant foods are typically low in each nutrient. Fortification of plant foods, such as of soy milk, may overcome this concern.
Nutritionists commonly recognize the following varieties of vegetarian vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, and semivegetarians. People who are vegetarians on moral grounds can consistently use any of these diets, depending on what specific moral reasons they have for becoming vegetarians. Especially since the 1970s, many have become vegetarians out of concern for the well-being of farm animals (see FARM-ANIMAL WELFARE). Many have become lacto-ovo vegetarians, consuming only products that can be obtained without slaughtering the animals in question. Additional concern over the day-to-day confinement and handling of farm animals has led others to become vegans. In particular, the tight confinement of most laying hens today (see CHICKENS) has led some to avoid eggs. Also, it has been pointed out that because modern milking cows are impregnated yearly and spend an average of only three to four years in production, the dairy industry is closely tied both to the veal industry...
Vegans Numerous restrictions generally including avoidance of all meat, poultry, milk and eggs, but may consume fish in small amounts. Also avoid sugar and other refined sweeteners, foods that are members of the nightshade family (peppers, egg plant, tomatoes, and potatoes) and tropical fruits. Current variations of the diet are less restrictive than the versions of 30years ago, but deficiencies of energy, iron, calcium, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and other nutrients may still arise in weanlings, pregnant women, and young children if diets are nutritionally unplanned Avoidances include all animal products including meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. Some vegans may also refuse to use any animal products in daily life. Without careful planning, energy, vitamins B12 and D, and bioavailable sources of iron may be low. Concentrated sources of energy-dense foods such as sugars and fats are helpful in increasing energy intakes. Vitamins B12 and D and calcium can be supplied from...
Deficiencies of water-soluble vitamins are rare in European and other Westernized countries. Infants are born with small stores of folate and can quickly become depleted if breast milk levels are low. A deficiency of folic acid is the most common cause of megaloblastic anemia in childhood. Infants of vegan mothers also have small stores of vitamin B12 and breast milk levels are likely to be low. Children consuming a macrobiotic or strict vegan diet are at risk of not meeting requirements for vitamin B12 unless they receive a supplement or a fortified infant soya formula.
Eggs (lacto ovo vegetarians) as part of their diet and thus a source of some, albeit reduced, dietary vitamin B12 still have reduced vitamin B12 status. Yet other communities who for religious or other reasons are strict vegetarians (vegans) have no source of vitamin B12 and are at high risk of deficiency. This risk can be reduced in some of these communities where fermented food is eaten, in which bacteria have introduced vitamin B12 also, it has been suggested that in some circumstances the food is contaminated by bacteria. However, vegans and in particular babies born to and weaned by strict vegan women are established to be at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency and such babies have been reported on several occasions to show the signs and symptoms of the neuropathy associated with such deficiency.
Involved avoidance of animal flesh (meat and poultry) categorization of vegetarian patterns was relatively straightforward and consisted simply of differentiating between those who ate no animal foods at all (vegan vegetarians), those who also consumed milk and milk products (lacto vegetarians), and those who ate eggs as well (lacto-ovo vegetarians). This simple categorization scheme broke down in the 1960s and 1970s as a result of greater exposure to the cuisines of other cultures, new Eastern religions and philosophical systems with a vegetarian tradition, and other influences, which led to the emergence of new patterns of vegetarianism. At the same time, vegetarian eating patterns are much more heterogeneous today than in the past. The availability and variety of plant foods, as well as commercially available and tasty meat analogs has greatly increased. Fortified foods today include soy milks fortified with vitamins B12 and D and a highly bioavailable form of calcium, and highly...
Adequate thyroid function is essential for optimal growth and development, and hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency is seen in many developing countries and some areas of Eastern Europe. The breast milk of mothers who are iodine deficient does not provide an adequate intake for infants, and WHO has described childhood iodine deficiency as the most common cause of preventable brain damage in the world. Infants and children consuming vegetarian and vegan diets have a lower intake than children who consume dairy products. There is little recent data on iodine requirements in infants and children, and most data are extrapolated from
The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for coba-lamin in adults proposed by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences National Research Council in 1997 is 2.4 mg. Coba-lamins do not occur in plants but are synthesized by certain bacteria, fungi, and algae, which constitute the ultimate source of all cobalamin found in nature. Cobalamins enter the food chain through herbivorous animals that harbor cobalamin-producing microorganisms in their upper gastrointestinal tract (e.g., the 'first stomach' of ruminants). Consumption of the meat or products of these animals supplies cobalamin in the diet for other animals. Dietary sources of cobalamin in humans are restricted to meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, and dairy products. Cobalamin is resistant to destruction by cooking, unlike the heat labile folates. On account of the exceedingly small daily requirement for cobalamin, in the order of 2 to 3 mg, and the relatively large body store of the vitamin (3000-5000 mg...
And fowl, with or without the addition of dairy produce and eggs. Those who wholly or occasionally abstain from red meat but eat fish and or poultry are described as demi- or semi- vegetarians. Veganism, or pure vegetarianism, is the practice of abstaining as completely as possible from all products and by-products of the slaughterhouse, including products derived from treatment deemed exploitative to animals. Vegans do not consume dairy produce or eggs and also exclude products such as honey on the grounds that animals are used and or killed in producing such types of human nourishment. Most vegetarians do not wear slaughterhouse by-products such as leather, and vegans avoid wearing leather completely.
Nuts and seeds can make a useful contribution to the dietary intake of macronutrients, notably protein and unsaturated fatty acids, micronutrients, dietary fiber, and energy. Although these commodities play a relatively minor role in the average Western diet, they are more important in the diets of Western vegetarians, especially vegans. Even on a worldwide basis, the nutritional contribution of nuts and seeds is relatively small Plant foods are estimated to supply around 65 of edible protein, but only 8 of protein and 4 of total dietary energy is estimated to derive from pulses, oil crops, and nuts (Young and Pellett, 1994).
Because dietary practices among vegetarians are so variable, individual assessment of their dietary intakes is recommended. Those at special risk are those in the nutritionally vulnerable groups due to age, life stage (pregnancy, lactation) or illness, especially if they eschew many animal food groups (vegans), have numerous other food avoidances, or hold beliefs that otherwise limit their dietary intakes. Use of a nutritionally sound food guide of diet planning vegan and vegetarian food guides that conform to the latest recommendations of expert groups may help to ensure that nutrient needs will be met with balance and without excessive intakes. Vegans and some other vegetarians sometimes have multiple food avoidances intakes of nutrients likely to be deficient can be increased by use of rich sources of whole foods, foods fortified with the nutrients falling short, and or vitamin or mineral supplements. Of particular concern with respect to risk of inadequacy for vegetarians are...
In humans, omniverous subjects usually have quite low levels of isoflavonoid excretion. The Japanese (males and females) have the highest levels of isofla-vonoid excretion in subjects following macrobiotic, vegan, and lactovegetarian diets. Urinary lignan excretion is higher in Finland compared to the United States and Japan. In assessing exposure to the protective effects of phytoestrogens, urinary excretion rates should be considered in combination with actual plasma levels. In some Japanese men, the plasma biologically active sulfate + free lignan fraction was similar or even higher than in Finnish men.
Does this mean you must eat meat, eggs, and dairy products (foods of animal origin) to get all the amino acids you need Not at all. By eating a variety of different foods, including grains and legumes, you are likely to get all the amino acids you need and in the correct amounts. People of many cultures and vegans (vegetarians who eat no foods of animal origin) get adequate amounts and types of protein by eating various combinations of plant proteins including beans, corn, rice, and other cereal grains. Although it was once thought necessary to combine these foods at the same meal, nutrition experts now agree that they can be eaten at various times throughout the day.
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