Vegetarian Bodybuilding

V3 Plant-based Fitness

Chris Willitts, creator of V3 has been in the bodybuilding and vegetarian for over 20 years and 10 years respectively. He was inspired to launch his vegetarian bodybuilding platform having seeing the need the vegetarianism is an effective tool to be applied in the bodybuilding industry. He majored in flexibility, strength, and mind-body interrelation. Having switched to the plant-based diet he included meditation. V3 Vegetarian Bodybuilding System is a combination of Chris advice and science on how to eat in line with one's fitness goals, infusing the whole program with mind-body awareness. The system is designed not only for vegetarians, but semi-vegetarians, part-time vegetarians, vegans, or undecided. The V3 Bodybuilding system is a self-guided system the does not include one-on-one coaching. The V3 has been deliberated upon by top plant-based fitness experts in the industry before coming up with something that has an assurance of getting positive results to the general populace. The V3 Bodybuilding System is not an eBook. It is actually a membership-based online resource (which some parts of the worksheet are available for download as PDFs). This product is easy to understand and it is newbie friendly that do not require any level of technical skills. Read more...

V3 Plantbased Fitness Summary


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Highly Recommended

The writer presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this manual are precise.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Religious Vegetarians

Two primary motifs, ascetic and mystical, have informed an ethico-religious awareness. Vegetarianism has an established place in some Indian religious traditions, especially Jainism and, to some degree, Buddhism and Hinduism. The ascetic motif, particularly within Jainism, is based on the doctrines of nonviolence and nonpossessiveness. The goals of the spiritual life are, among other things, the renunciation of aggressive and possessive urges and following the path of purification (Jaini). While Christianity has not formally endorsed vegetarianism, some strands of its tradition have affirmed that abstaining from meat can have value as a spiritual discipline. Some religious orders for example, the Benedictines eschewed meat as part of their ascetic regime (Sorrell). Self-denial as part of striving toward moral perfection has sometimes formed the basis for vegetarian lifestyles (Tolstoy). Ascetic practices may involve a vegetarian diet as a conscientious ecological response to wasteful...

Current Vegetarian Eating Patterns and Practices

Until about 40 years ago, in Western countries virtually all of the common vegetarian eating patterns involved avoidance of animal flesh (meat and poultry) categorization of vegetarian patterns was relatively straightforward and consisted simply of differentiating between those who ate no animal foods at all (vegan vegetarians), those who also consumed milk and milk products (lacto vegetarians), and those who ate eggs as well (lacto-ovo vegetarians). This simple categorization scheme broke down in the 1960s and 1970s as a result of greater exposure to the cuisines of other cultures, new Eastern religions and philosophical systems with a vegetarian tradition, and other influences, which led to the emergence of new patterns of vegetarianism. Today, myriad vegetarian eating patterns exist, and they cannot be easily described by focusing on a single dimension, such as animal food intake. Meatless and vegetarian eating patterns and life styles are growing in popularity today. They continue...

Fasting and Vegetarian Diets

An alternative approach to alleviating the symptoms associated with chronic inflammation is elimination of various foods or food components, most often by fasting or a vegetarian diet. Some studies have demonstrated a significant improvement in various objective and subjective measures of disease activity, including number of tender and swollen joints, Ritchie articular index, duration of morning stiffness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein (CRP), grip strength and score on health assessment questionnaires, among patients with RA 6 weeks to 2 years after initiating a vegetarian diet. Furthermore, these clinical improvements were accompanied by changes in biochemical and immu-nological parameters consistent with a substantial reduction in inflammatory activity. Other studies, however, have demonstrated no clinical improvement among patients with RA following a vegetarian diet. Several possible mechanisms have been proposed to explain the impact of elimination...

Vegetarian Diets Ethics and Health

Increasingly, people are adopting vegetarian diets for reasons of health or ethics. Vegetarian diets vary greatly, however, and different varieties of vegetarianism might be endorsed by people with different moral commitments. Nutritionists commonly recognize the following varieties of vegetarian vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, and semivegetarians. People who are vegetarians on moral grounds can consistently use any of these diets, depending on what specific moral reasons they have for becoming vegetarians. Many people have become vegetarians out of concern for human starvation. In Diet for a Small Planet Francis Moore Lappe argued that a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet would feed the world's human population more efficiently because a cow must eat many pounds of vegetable matter to grow a pound of meat, and much of that vegetable matter could have been used to feed humans. However, as large areas of the world that are not suited to farming could nevertheless support...

Vegetarian Eating Patterns

The term vegetarian diet does not fully describe the variety in nutrient intakes and health status of those Table 1 Common types of vegetarian dietary patterns categorized by animal food use Lacto-ovo vegetarians Lacto vegetarians Macrobiotics Numerous restrictions generally including avoidance of all meat, poultry, milk and eggs, but may consume fish in small amounts. Also avoid sugar and other refined sweeteners, foods that are members of the nightshade family (peppers, egg plant, tomatoes, and potatoes) and tropical fruits. Current variations of the diet are less restrictive than the versions of 30years ago, but deficiencies of energy, iron, calcium, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and other nutrients may still arise in weanlings, pregnant women, and young children if diets are nutritionally unplanned Avoidances include all animal products including meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. Some vegans may also refuse to use any animal products in daily life. Without careful planning,...


Vegetarianism is traditionally defined as the practice of abstaining from eating animal flesh. Modern vegetarian societies, such as the Vegetarian Society of the United Kingdom, define the practice as abstaining from flesh, fish, and fowl, with or without the addition of dairy produce and eggs. Those who wholly or occasionally abstain from red meat but eat fish and or poultry are described as demi- or semi- vegetarians. Veganism, or pure vegetarianism, is the practice of abstaining as completely as possible from all products and by-products of the slaughterhouse, including products derived from treatment deemed exploitative to animals. Vegans do not consume dairy produce or eggs and also exclude products such as honey on the grounds that animals are used and or killed in producing such types of human nourishment. Most vegetarians do not wear slaughterhouse by-products such as leather, and vegans avoid wearing leather completely.

Health Vegetarians

As late as the 1950s, the unwritten consensus among health specialists and dieticians was that animal protein in some form is essential to maintain adequate human health. While this position has not been completely reversed, medical advice from official studies increasingly recommends low-animal-fat diets, some of which eschew animal protein completely. Studies suggest that vegetarians have lower rates of diet-related cancer (Chang-Claude et al.), especially colon and rectal cancer (Phillips Willett et al.) and prostate cancer (Giovannucci et al.). Vegetarians experience lower mortality from coronary heart disease than nonvegetarians, possibly due to their lower serum cholesterol levels (Burr and Butland). One study has shown that mortality from cardiovascular disease among vegetarians was less than half that of the general population (Chang-Claude et al. see also Snowdon et al., 1984). Vegetarians suffer less from hypertension (Armstrong et al. Rouse et al.), obesity (Thorogood et...

Green Vegetarians

Green political parties in Europe (i.e., those parties committed to programs that give priority to ecological sustainability) increasingly advocate a vegetarian diet or, at least, reduced meat consumption for environmental reasons. For example, the policy of the Green Party of the United Kingdom encourage s a reduction in consumption of animal produce and promote s the development and use of foods which are more healthy and humane (Green Party, p. 15). They offer two arguments. The first is that if enough Westerners become vegetarians, worldwide food distribution will become more equitable. It is calculated that if we all had a vegetarian diet and shared our food equally, the biosphere could support around six billion people if 15 percent of our calories came from animal products (and again food were shared equally), the figure would come down to four billion people if 25 percent of our calories came from animal products, then it would fall to three billion and if 35 percent of our...

Ethical Vegetarians

Of three main arguments for vegetarianism on ethical grounds, the first is based on the value of animal life. Even if we grant animal life secondary or even minimal value, it is difficult to see how human taste preference alone can justify killing. In general, killing for food when it is not required for human health or survival fails the test of moral necessity. Consuming flesh when we could do otherwise is empty gluttony (Clark, 1977, p. 183). Some philosophers have argued that it is not justifiable to kill animals even painlessly, asserting that it is logically inconsistent to care whether animals suffer without also valuing animal life itself (Godlovitch). Ferr accepts that many modern farming practices are cruel but argues that moderate meat eating is justifiable if nearly painless methods of slaughter are adhered to (p. 400). If such a goal were to be achieved, fundamental changes would be required at all levels of livestock management. Minimally, slaughtering techniques would...


The average intake of carnitine by strict vegetarians is only one-tenth of that of people eating a mixed diet but plasma levels are within 'normal' limits. However, dietary carnitine may be required by premature infants and possibly by full-term infants and may be required by adults taking certain drugs. There are very few plant sources of taurine and it is not known to what extent this may be a dietary essential. However, plasma levels in strict vegetarians are close to the 'normal' range.

Vegetarian diets

A reduced risk of CVD has been reported in populations of vegetarians living in affluent countries134-136 and in case-control comparisons in developing countries.137 Reduced consumption of animal fat and increased consumption of fruit, vegetables, nuts and cereals may underlie such a protective effect. However vegetarian diets per se need not be healthful.136 If not well planned, they can contain a large amount of refined carbohydrates and trans fatty acids while being deficient in the levels of vegetable and fruit consumption. The composition of the vegetarian diet should, therefore, be defined in terms of its cardioprotective constituents rather than use or endorse the vegetarian label as an omnibus category.

Food products and the food system

Products interact with every part of the food system from primary production to the consumer as shown in Fig. 1.1. The new cereal, high in protein, may go to the processor to produce a specialised protein product for bakers, or to a food manufacturer to make a high-protein breakfast cereal, or to a vegetarian fast-food outlet as a meat replacer, or to a supermarket as an ingredient for home-prepared muesli or directly to the consumer for use in a home breadmaker. A new product in one part of the food system can cause new products in other parts.

Special Exposure Groups

As a largely vegetarian group, the Seventh-Day Adventists have been used in studies of meat earing and cancer. Studies of these groups, however, are limited in the same ways that other ecological studies are limited. For example, although lower rates of colon cancer have been observed among Seventh-Day Adventists supporting the hypothesis that meat is related to colon cancer there are other lifestyle choices that characterize the group, such as low rates of tobacco use and alcohol intake, which could also modify their rates of colon cancer.

Profiles of Animal Rights Advocates

Studies have shown that regardless of gender, those who adopt the traditional feminine sex role (more caring and sensitive to the concerns of others, in contrast to the more masculine domination and nondifferentiation as defined by the Bem Sex Role Inventory) are most likely to support animal rights ideals. Not surprisingly, animal rights advocates are often vegetarians (see VEGETARIANISM). They are often concerned about domination by one individual or group over others. Generally liberal, both religiously and politically, supporters of the animal rights movement* are more likely to be ecologically concerned and to have a more negative view of the military than those who oppose this movement. As a group, animal rights advocates tend to be more empathic and are likely to rely more on their feelings and intuitions (to be classified as feeling and intuitive types on the Myers-Briggs Selected Bibliography. Adams, C.J., The Sexual Politics of Meat A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory (New...

Ecofeminists Perspectives

Adams, Carol J., Neither Man nor Beast Feminism and the Defense of Animals (New York Continuum, 1994) Adams, Carol J., The Sexual Politics of Meat A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory (New York Continuum, 1990) Adams, Carol J., and J. Donovan (Eds.), Animals and Women (Durham, NC Duke University Press, 1995) Birke, Lynda, Feminism, Animals, and Science The Naming of the Shrew (Philadelphia Open University Press, 1994) Gaard, Greta (Ed.), Ecofeminism Women, Animals, Nature (Philadelphia Temple University Press, 1993).

Animal Rights Movement1

In the first few years of the 1980s important national organizations originated, including People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), Transpecies Unlimited, Farm Animal Reform Movement (FARM), Feminists for Animal Rights, Mobilization for Animals, and In Defense of Animals. Vegetarian leaders, such as Alex Hershaft, joined the movement, and farm-animal suffering and vegetarianism* joined experimentation as central issues. Meanwhile, the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) first appeared in the United States with a 1977 raid releasing two dolphins from a Hawaii research lab. The 1990s began with as many as 75,000 turning out at a March for the Animals in Washington, D.C. The animal rights movement was becoming a social force to be reckoned with. More than the march, other movement accomplishments attest to its endurance and promise. Cruelty-free cosmetics are now readily available, and many large companies have given up animal testing. Fur sales have dropped drastically....

Hunting and Trapping Hunting as a Conservation Strategy

Wildlife management has traditionally meant game management. Hunting both for meat and for sport is an ancient practice. Humans evolved as omnivores meat has been important in human nutrition, although it is quite possible for humans to be well nourished as vegetarians. The character of hunting has accentuated sport hunting in modern times few hunters of the early twenty-first century are primarily meat hunters, although in most cases the carcass will be eaten. Most hunters have a code of ethics. They think it unethical to waste the meat. Hunters also seek a fair chase, a clean kill, minimal suffering, and respect for the animal and hunters have long been among the most effective conservationists. Predators, especially wolves, were often eliminated as competitive hunters.

The Disadvantages of Pet Keeping

In order to sustain high populations of species such as cats and dogs, for example, other species such as whales, kangaroos, and horses must be killed in order to feed them. Few pet animals of any size can be sustained without meat, though it appears that dogs can live well on an appropriately balanced vegetarian diet. The commercial production of pet food has also been criticized as a waste of resources. The average cost of feeding an eighty-pound dog has been estimated at 8,353 for its lifetime (Shell).

Attitudes among Children

Pet keeping is particularly common among middle-childhood children (around 8 to 12 years) (see COMPANION ANIMALS AND PETS). This is probably the age at which children's emotional interest in animals is at its highest and when, especially for girls, big-eyed, cuddly, furry animals are particularly attractive. After this age, in the teenage years, interest in moral issues surrounding animals and their use by humans becomes more prominent. This is the time when young people are most likely to take ''stands'' on animal issues (and, indeed, other issues such as political ones) by, for example, adopting vegetarian or vegan diets (see VEGETARIANISM) or becoming involved in environmental or animal rights* campaigns. As interests outside the home take prominence in teenagers' lives, interest and involvement in pet keeping often wane a little. But childhood experience of pets nevertheless appears to retain an influence. In an recent study it was found that university students who had grown up...

The Role of Eggs in the Diet

There are no substantive nutritional differences between white eggs, brown eggs, fertile eggs, and free-range eggs nutritional content is determined by the hen's diet Hens are not given hormones to produce eggs in the absence of a rooster hens lay eggs with or without a rooster there are no harmful hormones in eggs Antibiotics have no effect on egg production and there is no value in using them unless needed for therapeutic reasons Commercial eggs are not fertile (can be included in a lactoovo- or ovo-vegetarian diet) that stringy stuff (chalaza) is an egg protein that anchors the yolk in the centre of the egg No study has ever shown that

Nutrition and Nutritional Supplementation

Maternal nutrition is important to pregnancy outcome. Total weight gain as well as the pattern of weight gain affect newborn birth weight. Maternal weight gain begins in the first trimester and is most significant during the first half of pregnancy. Average total gain is 12.5 kg (28 lb). A balanced diet with sufficient caloric intake for appropriate weight gain supplies necessary vitamins. Routine supplementation with a multivitamin, therefore, is not necessary. 19 Vitamin supplementation may be necessary for women with special nutritional needs or those who follow a restricted diet (e.g., vegetarian). Since folic acid supplementation prepregnancy and during early pregnancy may prevent neural tube defects, the Centers for Disease Control recommends a regular daily folic acid intake of 400 pg for all fertile women. 20 As soon as pregnancy is established, this supplementation of 1 mg day should be started. For women with a previous pregnancy affected by neural tube defect, the...

Income and urbanization levels affect the mix of foods consumed in different countries

Regmi and Pompelli found that in low-income level countries, such as Cambodia, Haiti, and Nicaragua, consumer food demand tends to be focused on low-value staple food products to meet basic calorie requirements. Updated data in Table 3.1 support this finding and show that low-income level countries have a higher per capita consumption of cereal products and roots and tubers (e.g. sweet potatoes, cassava) than countries with higher income levels. In general, consumers in lower-income countries tend to spend a higher proportion of their budget on food than other countries (Regmi et al., 2001, Seale et al., 2003). They are also more responsive to changes in general food prices and income and therefore, make larger adjustments to their diets when food prices and incomes change (Seale et al., 2003). This is particularly true for higher-value food items, such as meat and dairy, while household budget allocations for staple foods tend to undergo smaller changes (Regmi, 2001). Populations...

Human Milk and Infant Feeding

Following birth, the amount of red blood cell DHA in premature infants decreases therefore the amount of DHA available to the premature infant assumes critical importance. Preterm infants have a limited ability to convert LNA to DHA (Figure 2) therefore, a number of studies have been carried out on the DHA status of the premature infant. Premature babies have decreased amounts of DHA, but human milk contains enough DHA to support normal growth of the premature baby. The amount of n-3 fatty acids in human milk varies with the mother's diet in particular, DHA is lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. One can increase the amount of DHA in human milk by giving fish oil rich in DHA to the mother.

Cows Milk Protein Avoidance

Butter, margarine, cream, cheese, ice cream, and yogurt all need to be avoided. Fats that can be used instead include margarines made from pure vegetable fat (e.g., Tomor) and lard. Caution is required with baby foods, as a large number of manufactured products, e.g., rusks, contain milk protein. A common trap is so-called 'vegetarian' cheese, often wrongly believed to be safe for subjects with cows' milk allergy. In fact, it differs from ordinary cheese only in the use of nonanimal rennet and is unsuitable for people with cows' milk allergy. Meat, game, and poultry are all allowed, but sausages and pies should be avoided unless it is known that they are milk free. Intolerance to cows' milk protein is not a reason to avoid beef. Eggs are allowed, but not custard or scrambled egg which may contain milk. Fish is permitted, unless it is cooked in batter (which unless otherwise stated should be assumed to contain milk) or milk. Lemon curd, chocolate spread, chocolate (unless stated to be...

Legumebased Fermented Foods

(a) Tempe (Tempeh) Kedele This is a fermented soybean-based food, popular with American vegetarians and also available in Canada, the West Indies, Holland, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It is supplied in the form of a white, moldy cake. The beans are cleaned, soaked, dehulled, partially cooked, drained, inoculated, packed in banana leaves or perforated plastic bags, and incubated for 2 days to produce tempe. A variety of fungi have been isolated from Malaysian tempe including various species of Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium, and Rhizopus by Yeoh and Merican (1977). In tempe of other origins bacteria such as Bacillus and Micrococcus sp. may also be present (b) Tempelike foods from broad beans and cowpeas Rhizopus arrhizus is used in the production of tempe products from broad beans. R. oligosporus, R. oryzae, and R. arrhizus are used for tempe products from cowpeas. Different Rhizopus species give products with different aromas and flavors (Djurtoft and Jensen 1977) (c) Oncom (Ontjon) A...

Historical perspective on food processing Roman sausage to canning to space food

While vegetarianism is commonly practiced among Buddhists, Hindus and Seventh Day Adventists, this is more of a cultural discipline than religious doctrine. The exception is the prohibition of beef consumption by the Hindus. Vegetarianism seems to have its roots more in the health of the practitioner and in other ethical and spiritual ideals than in food safety.

Native Peoples And Animals

Contemporary Native Americans and tribes throughout the world, whether Walpiri of central Australia, Bimin-Kuskusmin of Papua New Guinea, the Tasaday of the southern Philippines, or the Qollahuaya of Mt. Kaata in Bolivia, all practice elaborate rituals that worship and are devoted to other animal species. While there is no doubt that our human ancestors hunted (see HUNTING) and frequently sacrificed animals, there is also a growing body of evidence suggesting the widespread habit of vegetarianism.* Today, few totally vegetarian communities exist, but there are some. In India, for example, where cows are traditionally revered, there are over 100 million vegetarians. Among them are nearly 1 million desert Bishnoi, a sub-sect of Hindus (see RELIGION AND ANIMALS, Hinduism) who live in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan State. They worship a medieval saint who claimed that all plants and animals are sacred and must be respected. Further to the south, the Todas of the Niligiri massif in the...

Flora Nutrient Interactions

There is a complex interaction between food and microflora in a feedback-like system. Different types of diets can lead to changes in fecal flora, and its resultant metabolic activity can be altered. When individuals consuming a vegetarian diet were compared to those on a typical Western diet, the latter had microflora that showed greater hydrolyz-ing ability leading to a more effective metabolism of bile acids and subsequently reduced cholesterol. Similar studies in mice have shown differences with high-fat diets versus low-fat diets.

Pittmanrobertson Act See Hunting Plutarch

Plutarch (c. 46-c. 120) was a Greek philosopher famous for his Lives. His defense of the Pythagorean diet led him to expound the philosophical basis of vegetarianism.* Instead of asking why vegetarians abstain from meat, we should ask why flesh eaters consume animals For the sake of a little flesh we deprive them of sun, of light, of the duration of life to which they are entitled by birth and being'' (Moralia, 535-579 Magel, Keyguide, 72). His other essays, Whether Land or Sea Animals Are Cleverer'' (Moralia, 309479) and Beasts Are Rational'' (Moralia, 487-533), defend animal intelligence, their ties of kinship with humans, and especially their right to be treated justly. Selected Bibliography. Magel, Charles, Keyguide to Information Sources in Animal Rights (London Mansell Publishing Jefferson, NC McFarland and Company, 1989) Martinengo-Cesaresco, Evelyn, Plutarch the Humane, in The Place of Animals in Human Thought (London T. Fisher Unwin, 1909) Plutarch, Moralia, trans. by H....

Judaism and Animal Sacrifice

Clark, Bill, ''The Range of the Mountains Is His Pasture'' Environmental Ethics in Israel, in J. Ronald Engel and Joan Gibb Engel (Eds.), Ethics ofEnvironment and Development Global Challenge, International Response (London Bell-haven Press, 1990), 183-188 Kalechofsky, Roberta, Judaism and Animal Rights Classical and Contemporary Responses (Marblehead, MA Micah Publications, 1992) Linzey, Andrew, Christianity and the Rights of Animals (New York Crossroad, 1987) Mai-monides, The Guide for the Perplexed, trans. M. Friedlander (New York Dover Publications, 1956) Murray, Robert, The Cosmic Covenant Biblical Themes of Justice, Peace, and the Integrity of Creation (London Sheed and Ward, 1992) Schwartz, Richard H., Judaism and Vegetarianism (Marblehead, MA Micah Publications, 1988).

Folic Acid and Vitamin B12

The RDA for vitamin B12 increases slightly during pregnancy to 2.6 mg day. Vitamin B12 supplements are definitely required by pregnant women who are strict vegetarians the vitamin is found only in animal products and the usefulness of the form of the vitamin found in algae and bacteria is not clear. An

Diets and Food Labelling

Work by Hardinge and colleagues in 1958, studying crude fibre intake in vegans, omnivores and vegetarians, was confirmed by Burkitt et al. in 1972. It showed that a vegan consumed 23.9 g of fibre a day, a vegetarian 16.3 g and an omnivore 10.7 g. Further studies by Davies and Dickerson (1994) suggested that not only is fibre intake in vegans and vegetarians higher, but also these groups have an improved bowel habit. Although there is an alteration in obtaining energy in vegetarian diets - from carbohydrate because fat is decreased within the diet - those who are vegans need to plan diets carefully so that nutritional status is not compromised.

Translating at the Cheese Counter

Result is a more authentic blue cheese taste with less fat and fewer calories. Top pasta with a small serving of grated cheese, such as Romano or Parmesan, but lean heavily on a vegetable-based sauce. Use a single slice of cheese atop a veggie-filled sandwich, or trade the cheese for a lean slice of turkey.

Food Labelling Agenda

FLAG (Food Labelling Agenda) is a national consumer pressure organisation launched in June 1997 by a group of concerned food and health writers. The organisation campaigns for 'clear, comprehensive and meaningful labelling on all food and food products' and its first task in March 1998 was to deliver a petition calling for improved food labelling to Downing Street. It won support from a huge number of individuals and organisations, including those with interests in allergy, genetic engineering, infant feeding, heart disease, cancer, vegetarianism, eating disorders and green issues. The accurate labelling of potential allergens is one of FLAG's major concerns. The organisation is steered by Michelle Berriedale-Johnson and Sarah Stacey and their postal address is PO Box 25303, London NW5 1WN. A newsletter is produced for supporters.

Adequate Inadequate and Excess Sodium

It is unlikely that adult daily maintenance requirement exceeds 0.6mmolperkg body weight and could well be below this in many mammals. Newborn, growing, pregnant, or lactating animals have increased requirements. The appropriate sodium intake for humans remains controversial with some cultures managing on less than 1 mmol per day, while Western intakes may be in the range 200-300 mmol per day, more where processed foods are heavily consumed. There has been insufficient awareness among physicians and human nutritionists of just how high such intakes are, compared with requirements in other animals. Granted that humans are bipeds with a stressful lifestyle quite different from those of animals, there is no real evidence that human obligatory losses or sodium requirements are significantly greater. Rather, there is an ingrained tradition of regarding sodium intake as a benign pleasure, involving a harmless and healthy dietary constituent. The main warnings against this view come from the...

Tolstoy Leo Nikolayevich

Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy (1828-1910) was a Russian aristocrat, novelist, and writer. Like Mohandas Gandhi,* he was deeply committed to the principle of nonviolence, which he also extended to the animal world. He translated Howard Williams's The Ethics of Diet into Russian with an accompanying essay ''The First Step'' (1892), in which he commends vegetarianism* as a step toward achieving the moral perfection required by Christ's teaching as illustrated by the Sermon on the Mount. Tolstoy corresponded with the Humanitarian League and eventually became a member. Although he was influenced by Orthodox spirituality, he was deeply critical of the established Orthodox Church, complaining that it legitimized violence and cruelty. His many novels illustrate the need for a spiritual life inclusive of respect for animals nowhere is this more powerfully stated than in the opening section of Resurrection (1904), where humans are pictured in their own physical and moral prison, unable to grasp that...

Diet Nutrition and Quality of Life

It is probably safe to conclude that suffering nutritional deficiency and dying a premature death from infectious illness is more likely to occur among the rural agrarian peasantry than among the urban masses. But for rural individuals who survive accidental and infectious deaths, their plant-based diets and rigorous lifelong physical activity patterns makes the goal of 'dying healthy in old age' a stronger possibility. With extended life expectancy among urban populations, ensuring the quality of life in later life is important as both a humanistic and economic consideration. Cardiovascular and malignant diseases produce lingering debility and dependency, robbing individuals of well-being and placing a burden of healthcare on relatives and governmental resources. Global and sustainable interventions to reduce sedentariness and pathogenic dietary practices in the growing segment of the world's population living in cities are an imperative for social and economic stability going...

Impact of Interventions

Regular consumption of pro-vitamin A food sources (dark green leaves and yellow vegetables and fruits) has variable, although generally positive, effects on vitamin A status. Dietary carotenoid intake appears most efficacious in raising serum retinol from deficient concentrations to minimally adequate levels in children and women but often fails to optimize vitamin A status. Variations in food matrix, methods of storage and preparation, amounts of preformed vitamin A and fat in the diet, gut integrity and function, protein energy and VA status of the host, and other factors may affect dietary efficacy. Among these, food matrix factors may be most important in determining bioavailability of pro-vitamin A carotenoid for uptake, conversion, and absorption. The belief has long been held that -carotene, the most ubiquitous pro-vitamin A carotenoid in the diet, can be converted from dietary sources to vitamin A in the body at a ratio of 6 1, but it is now recognized that...

Cultural Issues

Diverticular disease of the large bowel in western societies is common and it appears that the prevalence of this disease increases with age (Horner, 1958 Hughes, 1969 Parks, 1968 Sim and Scobie, 1982 Thompson et al., 1982). Much of the population in Europe, North America and Australia may develop the disease and it is often quoted by healthcare professionals that diverticular disease is rare among African peoples yet Africans adopting a western lifestyle become susceptible to the disease (Keeley, 1958 Burkitt et al., 1985). It was noticeable that war-time Britons and vegetarians whose diet is high in fibre appear to be less susceptible to the disease, therefore reinforcing the view that the disease is one of western civilization resulting from a fibre-deficient diet (Almy and Howell, 1980). In the USA, the minority with complications of the disease (200 000 hospitalizations per annum) cost three quarters of a billion US dollars annually in healthcare bills (US Department of Health,...

Appendix Resources on Animal Welfare and Humane Education

How on Earth is a quarterly for and by youth who support compassionate, ecologically sound living. It covers a variety of environmental, animal, and social justice issues and encourages activism and empowerment among youth who are concerned about the earth and all beings. HOE holds that being a vegetarian is an essential component of compassionate, sustainable living, so vegetarian recipes, nutrition advice, and lifestyle information are important features. uate education in the life sciences by expanding partnership ventures among academic disciplines such as biochemistry and philosophy and they lead to long-term relationships among life scientists, humanists, and others. A particularly interesting and somewhat controversial feature of the institute is that it provides only vegetarian lunches to participants. The project director is Gary Comstock, Bioethics Program, Iowa State University, 403 Ross Hall, Ames, Iowa 50011. Its newsletter, Ag Ethics Bioethics, is available from the...

Nineteenth Century Alternative Medicine

Hydropathy thus equated disregard of the laws of healthful living with defiance of God's will. Systematic efforts to promote healthful living were not only the means to physical well-being but also the key to the spiritual renovation of Earth. The hydropathic cause naturally attracted many of the period's moral and religious reformers. William Alcott, Lucy Stone, Amelia Bloomer, Susan B. Anthony, and Horace Greeley visited major hydropathic retreat centers, where they circulated reformist agendas ranging from vegetarianism to utopian socialism. Critical of the alleged superiority of official medical authorities, advocates of hydropathy had a natural affinity with the feminist thought of the time. Hydropathy looked to nature, not credentialed male physicians, as the ultimate source of healing, and in so doing, it provided a vehicle for those seeking to redress what they thought were faulty notions of social and political authority. Ellen White (1827-1915) occasionally visited a...

Edible Plants and Phytochemicals

Because their consumption is known to enhance health, vegetables, fruits, cereal grains, nuts, and seeds are the most widely researched functional foods. The health benefits of a plant-based diet are usually attributed to the content of fiber and of a variety of plant-derived substances (phytonutrients and phytochemicals) with antioxidant, enzyme-inducing, and enzyme-inhibiting effects. Some phyto-chemicals may also exert their health effects by modifying gene expression. Carotenoids, for example, enhance expression of the gene responsible for production of Connexin 43, a protein that regulates intercellular communication. The protective effect of carotenoid consumption against the development of cancer is more strongly related to the ability of individual carotenoids to upregulate Connexin 43 expression than their antioxidant effects or conversion to retinol. Dietary supplementation with beta-

Diverticular disease in Greece

A fibre increase does not necessarily mean that there will be a reduction in the risk of symptomatic diverticulosis because the disease is not just a fibre-deficient disease. There is a role played by lamb and beef and dairy products in possibly influencing the development of symptomatic diverticular disease. Therefore, the involvement of several dietary factors in the aetiology of diverticular disease may help to explain why vegetarians have a lower asymptomatic prevalence of diverticulosis. The findings of the Athens study are that people who attend hospital with abdominal

Micronutrients Alleviating Nutritional Disorders By Nutraceuticals

Plants synthesize and accumulate an astonishingly diverse array of vitamins, and nutraceuticals that have health-promoting properties (33,34). Many naturally occurring compounds have health promoting or disease preventing properties beyond the mere provision of nutrients for basic nutrition (1,34-36). In this way, plants not only constitute the base of the human food chain but they are also important means to improve human health and well-being, with the exception of vitamin B12 and D. A diverse and well-balanced plant-based diet, that includes mixed sources of grains, fruits, and vegetables, can ensure the proper micronutrient nutrition and health at all stages of the life cycle (Tables 5.1, 5.2) (18,20,21,37-39). It is known that seeds are good sources of lipid-soluble vitamins, but tend to have low levels of bioavailable iron, zinc, and calcium, whereas leafy vegetables can supply most minerals and vitamins. Fruits provide water-soluble vitamins and several types of carotenoids but...

Dietary Intake Of Phytate

Estimates of phytate daily intake in different parts of the world are presented in Table 3.8. These estimates are compiled from various nutritional studies based on different methods of data collection and analysis. Harland and Peterson 199 suggested that the average American (weighing 75 kg) consumes about 750 mg phytate per day. However, several studies 200-203 conducted in the United States indicate a wide variation in daily intake of phytate (Table 3.8). These variations could be due to differences in data collection methods and consumption of foods rich in phytates. Harland et al. 202 conducted a nutrition assessment of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian Trappist monk community in 1977 and 1987 and found a significant decrease in intake of phytate from 4569 mg day in 1977 to 972 mg day in 1987. They attributed this variation to decreased intake of phytate-containing foods such as cereals and increased consumption of milk, milk products, and others. In general, vegetarians consume a higher...

Evidence From In Vivo Studies With Humans

Our preliminary studies comparing DNA damage rate and micronutrient status in vegetarians and nonvegetarians had indicated that there was a significant negative correlation between the micronucleus frequency in lymphocytes and plasma vitamin B12 status in young men (43). Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of folate deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, and hyperhomocysteinemia in 64 healthy men aged between 50 and 70 yr and determined the relationship of these micronutrients with the micronucleus frequency in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes (44). Twenty-three percent of the men had serum folate concentration less than 6.8 nmol L, 16 had red blood cell folate concentration less than 317 nmol L, 4.7 were vitamin B12 deficient (< 150 pmol L), and 37 had plasma homocysteine levels greater than 10 mmol L. In total, 56 of the apparently healthy men had nonoptimal values for folate, vitamin B12, or homocysteine. The micro-nucleus index of these men (19.2 1.1, N 34) was significantly...

Dietary Fiber Obesity and the Etiology of Diabetes

In 1975, Trowell suggested that the etiology of diabetes might be related to a dietary fiber deficiency. This is supported by several key pieces of evidence. Vegetarians who consume a high-fiber lacto-ovo vegetarian diet appear to have a lower risk of mortality from diabetes-related causes compared to nonvegetarians. Consumption of whole grain cereals is associated with a lower risk of diabetes. Importantly, the same dietary pattern appears to lower the risk of obesity, itself an independent risk factor in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Obesity is emerging as a problem of epidemic proportions in affluent and developing countries. Consumption of whole grain cereal products lowers the risk of diabetes. A report showed that in 91249 women questioned about dietary habits in 1991, greater cereal fiber intake was significantly related to lowered risk of type 2 diabetes. In this study, glycemic index (but not glycemic load) was also a significant risk factor, and this interacted with a...

Barriers to Meeting Recommended Nutrient Intakes and Healthful Dietary Intake Patterns by Older Persons

The exigencies of consuming a healthful diet for the prevention of chronic diseases, emphasizing a plant-based diet rich in whole grains, fruits and vegetables, limits the nutrient selection that would be obtained from an even wider variety of foods and food-groups. Specific essential fatty acids, and certain minerals (calcium, zinc, selenium) and some vitamins are far less nutrient dense in foods of vegetal origin, setting a dilemma between consuming for nutrient adequacy and prevention of degenerative disease.

The Potential Therapeutic Role of Vitamins

Much interest has been expressed in the therapeutic role of vitamins in cancer patients. This has led a number of alternative and complementary practitioners to advocate the use of high-dose vitamins for cancer patients. It has been know for some time that some vitamin-deficiency states may predispose some individuals to develop cancer. In a study of 29 000 vegetarian Chinese with a high frequency of oesophageal cancer, subjects were given supplements of -carotene and vitamin E. Raising their daily intake above the minimum requirement reduced the incidence of deficiencies and reduced the number of oesophageal cancers. This type of study on vitamins and the etiology of cancer has led many practitioners and laypeople to extrapolate he role of vitamins into cancer treatment.

Impact of Lifestyle on Dietary Intakes

Slimming or weight control (whether justified or not) peer group pressure to consume certain foods or brands the development of personal ideology, such as the use of vegetarian diets following a specific diet to enhance sporting prowess or even convenience. Energy and nutrient intakes are influenced by specialized eating patterns, thus it is important to consider life-style choices when interpreting dietary survey data.

Recommended Dietary Intakes

Dietary recommendations at other ages reflect the increased needs of active growth periods, such as adolescence. Western dietary recommendations have been based on mixed diets with a relatively high bioavailability of iron and may need to be increased twofold or more for low meat, plant-based diets with greater phytic acid content (see Bioavailability).

Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Dietary

No plant material can synthesize vitamin B12. Apart from reports that some algae can synthesize vitamin Bi2 its origin in the food chain seems to be exclusively due to its biosynthesis by microorganisims. Thus, most vitamin B12 enters the human food chain from biosynthesis by microorganisms in herbivorous animals. Meat and products such as milk, cheese, or eggs introduce vitamin Bi2 into the human food chain. Chickens ingest food contaminated with microbes and introduce the vitamin via their meat and eggs. Vegetarians who have milk or eggs (lacto ovo vegetarians) as part of their diet and thus a source of some, albeit reduced, dietary vitamin B12 still have reduced vitamin B12 status. Yet other communities who for religious or other reasons are strict vegetarians (vegans) have no source of vitamin B12 and are at high risk of deficiency. This risk can be reduced in some of these communities where fermented food is eaten, in which bacteria have introduced vitamin B12 also, it has been...

Dietary Fiber and the Etiology of Hormone Dependent Cancers

Cancers of the breast, endometrium, ovary, and prostate fall into the hormone-dependent classification. An association between hormonal status and cancer risk arose from observations of oestrogen deprivation and breast cancer and testosterone deprivation and prostate cancer. Nutritional influences on breast cancer have been studied extensively and several (but not all) studies show diminished risk with greater intakes of dietary fiber. The situation for other cancers, especially prostate cancer, appears to be rather unclear, but given the commonality of the proposed protective mechanisms, it is reasonable to expect that some linkage may be found. Male vegetarians have been reported to have lower testosterone and oestradiol plasma concentrations compared to omnivores, and inverse correlations of testosterone and oestradiol with fiber intake have been reported. There are many published studies that have produced mixed and inconsistent results on the potential mechanisms involved....

The Food Guide Pyramid

The Food Guide Pyramid was developed by the U.S. Department ofAgriculture. The pyramid incorporates many principles that emphasize a plant-based diet that is low in fat, high in fiber, and rich in important vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. All of these factors contribute to optimal health and help you to control your weight and to reduce the risk of heart disease and some types of cancer. The arrangement of the food groups in a pyramid shape calls attention to the kinds of foods to eat more of and those to eat in moderation.

Summary of Known Relations between Diet and Cancer

See also Alcohol Disease Risk and Beneficial Effects. Cancer Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Cancers Other Than Colorectal Cancers Epidemiology of Lung Cancer Effects on Nutritional Status. Dietary Fiber Potential Role in Etiology of Disease. Dietary Surveys. Vegetarian Diets.

Everyday Feeding problems

Nutrient needs that are easily met in healthy children may be more difficult to achieve if children are offered, or accept, only a limited variety of foods or have poor appetites because of illness. Vegetarian diets for young children can provide adequate nutrition but some nutritional knowledge is advisable for those managing children on such diets. Plant proteins do not individually contain all the amino acids so mixing of protein sources is important for the provision of the amino acids needed for optimal nutrition and growth. Provided breast-feeding continues, or children take significant amounts of other milk or formula (cows' milk-based or soy-based infant formulas or, after 1 year, neat cows' milk), amino acid requirements can be met from milk or formula and little other protein is needed from plant or animal sources.

Future trends

The World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research recommend plant-based diets consisting of a variety of fruits and vegetables, pulses and minimally processed starchy foods that are low in energy. Their report states that these diets may prevent a variety of cancers (and other chronic diseases) because of their inclusion of constituents that are directly protective, or because of the exclusion of constituents commonly found in foods of animal origin.9 Several other recommendations pertaining to diet and lifestyle are made concerning other known or putative risk factors. There are two major research challenges associated with these recommendations and those arising from other expert reports promoting similar guidelines for a healthy diet.


Adequate thyroid function is essential for optimal growth and development, and hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency is seen in many developing countries and some areas of Eastern Europe. The breast milk of mothers who are iodine deficient does not provide an adequate intake for infants, and WHO has described childhood iodine deficiency as the most common cause of preventable brain damage in the world. Infants and children consuming vegetarian and vegan diets have a lower intake than children who consume dairy products. There is little recent data on iodine requirements in infants and children, and most data are extrapolated from


Vegetarian diets where no heme jejunum. Absorption of iron in heme from meat is more efficient than as inorganic ferrous or ferric iron. Thus, vegetarian diets present increased risk of iron deficiency. However, most diets, even in affluent westernized countries, are marginal in the amount of iron in relation to population needs. All children are at risk of developing iron deficiency with minor disturbances in dietary quality, iron absorption and metabolism, or with blood loss. Iron absorption takes place in the jejunum and upper ileum so conditions such as gluten-sensitive enteropathy (celiac syndrome), where the brunt of intestinal damage is in the jejunum and upper ileum, may present as severe iron deficiency. Reduced iron absorption during pyrexial illness contributes to iron deficiency in children who suffer frequent infections.


The degree to which utilitarians can differ over important practical matters is illustrated in our time by Peter Singer and R. G. Frey. Singer is justly famous for his seminal 1975 book, Animal Liberation, while Frey has written two books (1980, 1983) and many essays devoted to the issues under review. The two philosophers, while agreeing on some of the most fundamental points in ethical theory, disagree on many of the most important consequences each believes follow from the application of utilitarianism, including how nonhuman animals should be treated. For example, in Animal Liberation Singer advocates vegetarianism, on moral grounds Frey disagrees, appealing to the same grounds in his Rights, Killing, and Suffering Moral Vegetarianism and Applied Ethics (1983). It will be useful to explain how such profound disagreements can arise between partisans of the same moral philosophy. By its very nature, utilitarianism is a forward-looking moral theory. The consequences of our actions,...

Population Studies

Consumption of unrefined plant foods has been related to lower risk of CHD for some time, but the hypothesis that dietary fiber (i.e., NSP) intake could protect directly against the disease is relatively recent. The suggestion has been supported by a number of epidemiological studies linking higher intakes with lower risk. Vegetarians who consume more plant foods tend to have lower plasma lipids and blood pressure than age- and gender-matched omnivores. However, the strongest evidence derives not from these studies but from a number of very large cohort studies in several countries showing a consistent protective effect of whole grain consumption and CHD risk. Whole grain cereal consumption has been related to substantially lower risk of CHD in both men and women. The evidence for the latter is considered to be sufficiently strong for the US Food and Drug Administration to permit a health claim for consumption of whole grain cereal foods and lowering of the risk of CHD. Similar claims...

Physical Examination

The skin is dry and has a peculiar bluish erythema over the knuckles and knees. Orange-yellow discoloration of the skin (carotinodermia), seen in palms and soles, is frequently found. It is caused, at least in part, by an increased intake of vegetables, since it may also be seen among vegetarians.

Cowherd William

William Cowherd (1763-1816) was a minister and founder of the Bible Christian Church, a vegetarian sect that launched the world vegetarian movement. In 1800, Cowherd, then associated with the New Church of Emanuel Swedenborg, founded, together with Joseph Brotherton, Salford's first member of Parliament, a church at Salford near Manchester that would have an incalculable impact on the spread of vegetarianism* worldwide. Based on the biblical injunction to be vegetarian (Genesis 1 29-30), the main conditions of membership were vegetarianism and temperance. Moral considerations about the treatment of animals and a strong sense of respect for the whole created order complemented Cowherd's conviction that the consumption of animal flesh was prohibited by the Bible. The English Vegetarian Society was a direct offshoot of the Bible Christian Church when it was founded in 1847. Cowherd's influence was extended to the United States by his disciple William Metcalfe and other successors in the...

Blood Pressure

The possible effects of dietary fatty acids on blood pressure have been explored in population studies and dietary intervention trials. With the exception of studies comparing vegetarian and nonvegetarian populations, from which there is a suggestion of a blood pressure lowering effect of diets high in PUFAs, including LA, and lower in saturated fatty acids, the results of most within- and between-popu-lation studies have generally not found significant associations. The results of intervention studies suggest that n-6 fatty acids, LA in particular, may be responsible for a small blood pressure lowering effect. However, these studies are also inconsistent, with several failing to find a significant blood pressure lowering effect.

Dowding Lady Muriel

Lady Muriel Dowding (1908-1981), a leading British humanitarian, vegetarian, and antivivisectionist, was the founder in 1959 and later chairperson of Beauty without Cruelty, the organization that led the way in the commercial production of synthetic alternatives to fur and cruelty-free cosmetics. She was a longtime president of the National Anti-Vivisection Society. In 1969, she cofounded the International Association against Painful Experiments on Animals (IAAPEA) and remained a patron until her death. She was the wife of Air-Chief Marshall the Lord Dowding, former commanderin-chief of the British Fighter Command, who died in 1970. Together, they shared a lifelong interest in spiritualism that informed their ethical concern for animals. Selected Bibliography. Berry, Rynn, Interview with Lady Dowding, in The New Vegetarians (New York Pythagorean Publishers, 1993), 137-152 Brophy, Brigid, The Darwinist's Dilemma, in David A. Paterson and Richard D. Ryder (Eds.), Animals' Rights A...

Brophy Brigid

Brigid Brophy (1929-1995) was a British author and social critic who pioneered the modern tradition of animal rights. Her Sunday Times article ''The Rights of Animals,'' published in 1965, heralded a new ethical sensitivity to animals. Brophy was a dedicated vegetarian (see VEGETARIANISM), antivivisectionist (see ANTIVIVISECTIONISM), and an unsparing opponent of all blood sports. Her speeches, reviews, and articles articulated an uncompromising view of animal rights ''Those rights are inalienable and irreducible. You can't do arithmetic that trades six of one sort of rights for two of another. If it were justifiable to sacrifice one laboratory animal for the good of humans, then it would be justifiable to sacrifice one laboratory human for the good of a hundred humans'' (''Brigid Brophy and Vivisection,'' 135). Her first novel, Hackenfeller's Ape (1953), which won first prize at the Cheltenham Literary Festival, is the story of a distinguished scientist who risks his academic career...


Iron and especially zinc deficiency are difficult to diagnose and differing diagnostic criteria contribute to the confusion surrounding deficiency and immune dysfunction. Plasma levels of either micronutrient are not adequate to define status, however they commonly have been used for such. Deficiency of iron can be quantified at individual and community levels using a combination of indices, e.g., hemoglobin mean cell volume combined with an index of storage iron, ferritin plus an index of iron supply to tissues, or serum transferrin receptor concentration. Plasma zinc level decreases with inflammation and currently the best method of assessment for deficiency is response to supplementation. Alternatively, plasma zinc levels can be interpreted with caution in conjunction with a marker of the acute phase response. In developing countries iron and zinc deficiency are widespread and often occur together. Meat is the most important dietary source for both micronutrients however, in many...

In search of causes

And if (b) before the change in their environment, human ancestors were either fruit-eaters or vegetarians, (b) observation of use-wear marks on teeth of fossil hominids, together with chemical analysis of bones, enables us today to reconstruct the diet of extinct species, but the argument that our ancestors were strict vegetarians is difficult to evaluate, inasmuch as the scenarios in question do not make clear which type of hominids they have in mind. The hypothesis of original vegetarianism had been based largely on analogies with modern primates, who were formerly believed not to eat flesh. Recent observations of primates in the wild have shown that they hunt5 and that meat and eggs make up more than a third (37 per cent) of their food intake 6 (c) even ifwe accept that our ancestor metamorphosed from a vegetarian into a carnivore, we should not forget that hunting is not the only way of obtaining meat scavenging is another. It would be rash to deny that the hominisation process...


Despite the considerable differences in dietary iron bioavailability observed with absorption measurements, dietary changes are slow to influence biochemical indices of iron status. However, people following vegetarian diets for years have lower iron stores than their omnivorous counterparts, and consumption of red meat is often a predictor of iron status in epidemiological studies.

The Kosher Market

The kosher market covers more than 30,000 products in the United States. In dollar value, about 35 billion worth of products have a kosher marking on them. The actual consumers of kosher food, that is, those who specifically look for the kosher mark, are estimated to be about 6 to 8 million Americans, and they are purchasing almost 2 billion worth of kosher product each year. Only about one-third of the kosher consumers are Jewish other consumers include Muslims, Seventh Day Adventists, vegetarians, people with various types of allergy particularly dairy, grain, and legume and other consumers who value the quality of kosher products. We report to a higher authority was the ad claim for Hebrew National hot dogs. AdWeek Magazine has called kosher the Good Housekeeping Seal for the 90s. By undertaking kosher certification, food companies can incrementally expand their market by opening up new markets.

Moore John Howard

John Howard Moore (1862-1916) was a Chicago schoolteacher whose work The Universal Kinship (1906) was lauded by Henry Salt* as one of the most important humanitarian titles of its era. This work alone distinguishes Moore as perhaps the first organic American intellectual in the realm of animal rights.* It was through Moore's intercession that his brother-in-law, Clarence Darrow, became a supporting member of the Humanitarian League. Moore contributed articles and essays to numerous humane and vegetarian (see VEGETARIANISM) publications. He was also the author of Better World Philosophy (1899), The New Ethics (1907), and Savage Survivals (1916). Moore's work was marked by the conviction that the science of evolution provided an affirmation of the humane ethic.


Predation refers to animals killing other animals for food. Most animal rights* philosophers argue that humans should stop being predators they claim that we have a moral obligation to become vegetarians (see VEGETARIANISM). Questions that arise relate to other animal predators Is there a moral obligation for them to stop preying on other animals, and is there a moral obligation for humans to interfere with other animal predators Since most, but not all, humans can live on a vegetarian diet, we can eliminate the suffering and death caused by most human predation. However, the natural order is not one that can exist without suffering and death. Most predation by nonhuman animals is necessary for the survival of life on earth, and so it cannot be eliminated.

Role in the Diet

Nuts and seeds can make a useful contribution to the dietary intake of macronutrients, notably protein and unsaturated fatty acids, micronutrients, dietary fiber, and energy. Although these commodities play a relatively minor role in the average Western diet, they are more important in the diets of Western vegetarians, especially vegans. Even on a worldwide basis, the nutritional contribution of nuts and seeds is relatively small Plant foods are estimated to supply around 65 of edible protein, but only 8 of protein and 4 of total dietary energy is estimated to derive from pulses, oil crops, and nuts (Young and Pellett, 1994). See also Dietary Fiber Physiological Effects and Effects on Absorption. Fatty Acids Metabolism Monounsaturated Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Saturated Trans Fatty Acids. Folic Acid. Food Allergies Etiology. Food Safety Mycotoxins. Protein Quality and Sources. Vegetarian Diets.


Inflicting injury on these creatures is wrong because of the suffering* caused, and also because it produces passions in the killer leading to karma and rebirth. The Jains condemn all animal sacrifices,* build animal shelters,* and never hunt or fish. Farming, which injures insects, is permitted because the harm is unintentional, but Jain monks beg with a bowl so crumbs will not attract insects that would be crushed underfoot. Monks brush their path to sweep away small life forms they might otherwise step on. It is prohibited to breed destructive animals and considered noble to allow oneself to be bitten by a snake rather than kill it. Jains are vegetarians (see VEGETARIANISM), but consume milk.


Animal with its young on the same day for the pain of the animals under such circumstances is very great.'' Such a concern not to cause animals pain* is reflected in the various prescriptions regarding killing of animals for food. In the Jewish tradition, meat eating is regarded as giving in to human weakness in this light, animals must be spared pain when they are slaughtered. Only a properly qualified slaughterer is permitted to engage in such an activity he is to be a pious and sensitive person. The knife used must be sharp and clean without imperfections so that animals are slaughtered as painlessly as possible the act of slaughter should render the animal senseless. Although arguably more humane methods of slaughter have been introduced in the modern world involving prestunning (see TRANSPORTATION AND SLAUGHTER), this ancient practice was intended to cause as little suffering as possible. Such concern about animal welfare is reflected in a variety of incidents in which the rabbis...


God, it necessarily follows that there is a relatedness, a kinship between humans and nonhumans. According to St. Bonaventure, St. Francis was able to call creatures by the name of brother or sister because he knew they had the same source as himself.'' Fourth, many of these stories prefigure a world of peaceful relations between humans and animals where human activity is no longer injurious or detrimental to other creatures. St. Brendan's voyage, for example, culminates in the discovery of a new Eden-like land characterized by the absence of predatory nature (see PREDATION) and widespread vegetarianism.* Such stories are testimonies to a substratum within Christianity that is inclusive of concern for animal life. The ideas they embody of respect, generosity (see GENEROSITY PARADIGM), and kinship between species reflect the themes that mainstream Scholastic tradition has almost entirely failed to incorporate into its thinking.

Salt Henry Stephens

Henry Stephens Salt (1851-1939) was a pioneering 19th-century animal rights* advocate whose prescient work Animals' Rights (1892) anticipates virtually all of the important modern arguments in favor of animals' interests. While this and Salt's other works concerning vegetarianism* and animals' rights were little read in his time, Salt nevertheless exerted extraordinary influence on such contemporaries as Edward Carpenter, Mohandas Gandhi,* John Howard Moore,* William Morris, Sydney Olivier, George Bernard Shaw,* Count Leo Tolstoy,* and other prominent reformers. The Humanitarian League, which he founded with Fabian Socialists and other acquaintances in 1891, attacked a range of 19th-century cruelties and is regarded as the first modern animal rights organization. Salt and his colleagues campaigned not only against the violation of animals' rights but also against the oppression and torment of human beings in such contexts as warfare, criminal justice, labor relations, hospitals,...

Nutrient Supplements

Many pregnant women have special circumstances that prevent them from consuming an adequate diet. These include lactose intolerance, substance abuse, being an adolescent or a strict vegetarian, and having multiple fetuses. For these women, a multivitamin-mineral supplement may have positive benefits, including a reduced risk of some developmental defects, improvements in immune function, and a reduction in the onset and or progression of some cancers. Anemia is common during pregnancy and justifies treatment with iron supplements. However, some micronutrients commonly taken as supplements are potentially harmful to the developing fetus or, less often, to the pregnant woman, especially when consumed in relatively large amounts.


Cardioprotective effects of dietary potassium have been hypothesized as the basis for low CVD rates in populations consuming primitive diets and in vegetarians in industrialized cultures.88 The INTERSALT study provided evidence of an inverse association between urinary potassium excretion and blood pressure levels, across diverse populations.71 Migrant studies also revealed a rise in blood pressure when diets changed to a lower potassium and higher sodium intake.74

Shaw George Bernard

George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) was an Irish-born author, playwright, pamphleteer, and essayist. An outstanding humanitarian of his age, Fabian Socialist, vegetarian, and antivivisectionist (see ANTIVIVISECTIONISM), he was a scathing critic of all forms of animal abuse. His ''Shavian'' wit was used to devastating effect on opponents. On vivisection, he argued that the plain logic of such experimentation would be to include human subjects in research too since an unlimited right to know would justify boiling human infants to find out what boiled babies taste like (''These Scoundrels''). When H. G. Wells eulogized Pavlov's experiments with dogs,* Shaw replied, ''And from twenty-five years of this sort of thing all that the world learned was how a dog behaved with half its brains out, which nobody wanted to know, and, what was perhaps important, what sort of book a physiologist could write without having any brains at all'' (cited in Pearson, Bernard Shaw, 274). Angered by rabbit...


While vegetarianism and the specific prohibition on eating cows are two of the dietary hallmarks of modern Hinduism, early Hindu writings reveal that beef was eaten freely. Beef prohibition may have arisen as a response to the challenge of Buddhism, which was critical of Brahminism and its cattle-sacrificing practices, and so Brahmins championed the sacred cow concept in order to maintain their own position. It was perhaps subsequently strengthened by the need for Hindus to distinguish themselves from their new Muslim neighbours. Certainly by the time of the Rigveda, around 1000 CE, the prohibition was firmly ensconced. Devout Hindus are vegetarian meat, fish, and often eggs are avoided, the latter especially by women. An exception is made for the Ksatriya warrior caste, who may consume meat without loss of status, a concession probably related to notions of meat, strength and military prowess. Most castes will eat fish, though its actual consumption varies dramatically from region to...


Founded in the sixth century BCE by Siddartha Gautama, Buddhism became the state religion of India in 250 bce, though it is now a minority religion there, Buddhism has been the most influential of religious forces in spreading the practice of vegetarianism and has developed in different ways in many parts of the world, especially Southeast Asia, Tibet, China, Japan, and Korea.

Other Religions

Ascetics have few or no possessions and must beg for food. Some choose in old age to die through ritual fasting. Most Jainas are not ascetics, although some strive to imitate monastic ideals by pursuing a progressive path of renunciation, leading to rebirth as an ascetic. The non-monastic Jaina community practices vegetarianism and opposes the killing of animals. Because of this, agricultural and military occupations are not suitable to Jainas, who historically have chosen instead to enter the professions or to take up business interests. Sikh means disciple, a follower of the 10 gurus. Sikhism was founded in the fifteenth century ce by the guru Nanak who proclaimed, ''There is no Hindu there is no Muslim.'' Nanak rejected the social distinctions of the Hindu caste system and required his followers to eat together as a symbol of unity. Sikhs retain the Hindu reverence for cows and thus do not eat beef. Other meat may be eaten, although some Sikhs are vegetarians. Permitted animals...

Quality Assurance

Though consumers do not want to spend a lot of time on food preparation, they also are not willing to scrimp on health and nutrition. The trend to lowering fat consumption has contributed to gains in poultry consumption and declines in red meat. Consumer concerns about food additives, chemicals, and preservatives have translated into a growing market for pesticide-free products, organic produce, and vegetarian choices. As consumer concerns about food safety have increased, so have the demands that government regulators increase efforts to assure food safety and guarantee consumers better and more accurate information about the food they eat. We have seen some major initiatives by the government such as the Food Code 1997, the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Hogard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) initiatives, and the President's National Food Safety Initiative. Environmental...

Woolman John

John Woolman (1720-1772) was an English Quaker divine and ardent abolitionist who expressed a reverence-for-life philosophy in his writings and personal practices. In his Journal (1772, 178-179), Woolman recorded that he was especially disturbed by the suffering of barnyard fowl carried for food on the ship on which he made his journey to England. Earlier, he recorded his conviction that ''true religion'' consisted in exercising ''true justice and goodness not only towards all men but also towards the brute creatures'' (Journal, 1720-1742, 28). Woolman declined to use stagecoaches and would not even send letters by couriers, finding the horses badly abused by their owners' habits of running them to death in an effort to maintain reputations for speed and efficiency. By practicing vegetarianism,* Woolman complemented his boycott against cotton, sugar, and indigo dye produced by slave labor with a conscious witness against animal exploitation. The significance of Woolman's witness was...

Hindu Worldview

Transmigration links all living beings in a single system. Unlike the Judaeo-Christian and Islamic religious systems, Hinduism makes no sharp distinction between human and animal. Dharma as a guide to proper behavior is relative, not the same for different people or different beings. The ideas of karma and sa sara motivate values of nonviolence (ahimsa) and vegetarianism. Nonviolence, which was never so prominent a value in Hinduism as it was in Jainism and Buddhism, has less stringent implications for laypersons than for ascetics, and it does not interfere with righteous warfare, punishment of criminals, or self-defense.

Vitamin B12

Partially because of the size and complexity of the vitamin B12 molecules, deficiencies of this water-soluble vitamin result more from absorption problems than from dietary insufficiencies.2 Absorption depends on the production of intrinsic factor (IF) by the parietal cells of the stomach. Vitamin B 12-IF complexes are formed in the stomach. The complexes pass to the ileum, where IF attaches to the intestinal epithelium, facilitating the absorption of the vitamin B 12. Once absorbed, the cobalamin portion of the molecule attaches to the protein transcobalamin II which carries the B 12 through the bloodstream to various tissues. Vitamin B12 is stored in the liver in such quantities that it takes several years for pernicious anemia to develop in an individual who is a strict vegetarian and ingests little B 12 or in someone unable to produce IF. Meat, eggs, dairy products, and seafood contain vitamin B12.

Nutritional Adequacy

It is useful to screen out those vegetarians who are likely to be at high risk of dietary inadequacy by using some simple characteristics of their diets and lifestyles to determine if further dietary assessment is likely to be needed. The entire pattern of intake (including avoidances, substitutions and additions of foods, and use of dietary supplements) describes the individual vegetarian's profile of nutrient adequacy or inadequacy. Because dietary practices among vegetarians are so variable, individual assessment of their dietary intakes is recommended. Those at special risk are those in the nutritionally vulnerable groups due to age, life stage (pregnancy, lactation) or illness, especially if they eschew many animal food groups (vegans), have numerous other food avoidances, or hold beliefs that otherwise limit their dietary intakes. Adequate Vegetarian Diet Patterns There are many individuals who have little or no risk of dietary inadequacy from their vegetarian eating patterns...

Acid and Alkali Load

Volatile acid (CO2) is excreted by the lungs, whereas the breakdown of sulfur and phosphorus-containing compounds are 'fixed' acids, requiring excretion by the kidney. For example, cysteine or methionine metabolism leads to the production of sulfuric and phosphoric acid (H2SO4, H3PO4), while the metabolism of other amino acids (lysine, argi-nine, and histidine) leads to the production of hydrochloric acid (HCl). In contrast, organic acids (e.g., lactate, fatty acids) may be completely metabolized to CO2 and H2O and thus excreted by the lungs. In addition, the absorption of dietary phosphate and the fecal loss of bicarbonate represent an additional acid load. In total, the net acid load of fixed acid is approximately 1 mmol kg-1 day-1 and may be increased by a high protein intake or reduced by a strict vegetarian diet.

Fibre in the Diet

And Burkitt (1971), using geographical and historical research, have continually received support for this hypothesis. Studies undertaken with case-controls by Brodribb and Humphreys (1976) suggested that patients with diverticular disease had low dietary intakes of crude fibre, but this is not an indicator of overall dietary fibre intake. Gear et al. (1979) and Berry et al. (1984) undertook studies on rats and found that they develop more and more diverticula when they are given less and less bran in their diet. Yet vegetarians have been shown to have less than half the expected prevalence of asymptomatic diverticulosis, which results only partly from their higher fibre intake (Gear et al., 1979).

Multiple Births

Iron. Obesity Complications. Pregnancy Role of Placenta in Nutrient Transfer Nutrient Requirements Energy Requirements and Metabolic Adaptations Weight Gain Safe Diet for Pregnancy Prevention of Neural Tube Defects Pre-eclampsia and Diet. Sodium Physiology. Vegetarian Diets. Vitamin A Deficiency and Interventions. Vitamin D Rickets and Osteomalacia. Vitamin K.


Does this mean you must eat meat, eggs, and dairy products (foods of animal origin) to get all the amino acids you need Not at all. By eating a variety of different foods, including grains and legumes, you are likely to get all the amino acids you need and in the correct amounts. People of many cultures and vegans (vegetarians who eat no foods of animal origin) get adequate amounts and types of protein by eating various combinations of plant proteins including beans, corn, rice, and other cereal grains. Although it was once thought necessary to combine these foods at the same meal, nutrition experts now agree that they can be eaten at various times throughout the day.

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