Vertical Jump Training Manual
Interdisciplinary Issue The Vertical Jump Now that the principles are out of the bag, let's use them to look at a common sport movement, the vertical jump. Imagine an athlete is doing a standing vertical jump test. Which principles of biomechanics would be of most interest to scholars from motor development, motor learning, exercise physiology, or sport psychology studying the vertical jump test What combinations of the sport sciences are most relevant to the concept of skill in vertical jumping What sports science provides the most relevant information to the physical determinants of jumping ability How could someone determine if the success of elite jumpers is more strongly related to genetics (nature physical) than coaching (nurture training) How could a strength coach integrate jump training studies with biomechanical studies of jumping techniques
Unfortunately, athletes are often stereotyped as dumb jocks with gifted physical abilities. How much of movement ability do physical characteristics like muscular strength, speed, and coordination contribute to performance compared to neu-romuscular abilities (a good motor brain) Think about the ability your favorite athlete would have if he she had a stroke that affected part of their motor cortex. In training and conditioning there are several areas of research where there is evidence that the effects of training on muscle activation by the central nervous system is underrated. First, it is well known that the majority of the initial gains in strength training (first month) are related to the neural drive rather than hypertrophy (see Sale 1992). Second, it is known that both normal and injured subjects are not usually able to achieve true maximum muscle force in a maximal voluntary contraction. This is called muscle inhibition and is studied using an electrical stimulation method...
This phase brings us toward the top of Fagerson's treatment pyramid.7 With proprioceptive drills and specific training, the patient should be able to return to normal function. Therapy intervention involves designing exercises to produce the desired joint motions and muscle contractions. Utilization of the SAID principle is indicated throughout the course of treatment, but is essential in this phase. SAID is the acronym for specific adaptations to imposed demands.4 This principle allows the tissues to adapt and remodel according to the stresses placed on them. Training should reflect the specific demands of the functional task. For example, if the patient's job involves jumping, plyometric training needs to be included. If the patient is a dancer, stretching needs to be both static and ballistic.
Movement can be accurately described as combinations of joint angular motions. Remember that the biomechanical principle of range of motion, however, can be more generally defined as any motion (both linear or angular) of the body to achieve a certain movement goal. Specific joint motions can be of interest, but so too can the overall linear motions of the whole body or an extremity. Coaches can speak of the range of motion of a stride in running or an approach in the high jump. Therapists can talk about the range of motion for a joint in the transverse plane. intermediate load activities How much range of motion should you use when the load is a javelin, a shot, or your bodyweight (vertical jump) Biomechanical studies can help kinesiology professionals decide how much range of motion is about right. In the qualitative analysis of movement, this approach of identifying a range of correctness (like in range of motion) is quite useful because the professional...
Plyometrics are common exercises for improving speed and muscular power movements in athletes. Plyometric exercises use weights, medicine balls, and falls to exaggerate stretch-shortening-cycle muscle actions. Considerable research has focused on drop jumps as a lower-body plyometric exercise for improving jumping ability (Bobbert, 1990). Recent research has shown that drop jump exercise programs can increase bone density in children (Fuchs, Bauer, & Snow, 2001). Qualitative analysis of drop jumps is important in reducing the risk of injury in these exercises and monitoring technique that has been observed to vary between subjects (Bobbert et al., 1986). Qualitative analysis is also important because drop jumping and resistance training can affect the technique used in various jumping movements (Hunter & Marshall, 2002). Table 11.2 presents important technique points and cues for drop jumps.
The coach must next diagnose these weaknesses and decide on the best intervention to help this player improve. A good coach would likely focus the player's attention on the correct arm action using both arms (Coordination). The primary reason for this diagnosis is safety, because the use of one arm and trunk twist to propel a heavy object may not be safe loads for poorly trained adolescents. There is also less research on upper body plyometrics than there has been on lower body plyometric exercises (Newton et al., 1997), so what loads and movements are safe is not clear. Cues given for this technique point may also correct the angle of release, increase the speed of the pass, and enhance control of the ball. You decide to work on the stride later for safety reasons. Focusing intervention on the stride does not increase ball speed or decrease the distance (and therefore time) of the pass as much as good coordination with both arms would.
Learning the sequential coordination of a large kinematic chain is a most difficult task. Unfortunately, there have been relatively few studies on changes in joint kinetics accompanied by learning. Assuming that the energy was transferred distally in a sequential movement (like our immature volleyball spike in the previous chapter), it would not be desirable to practice the skill in parts because there would be no energy to learn to transfer. Recent studies have reinforced the idea that sequential skills should be learned in whole at submaximal speed, rather than in disconnected parts (see Sorensen, Zacho, Simonsen, Dyhre-Poulsen, & Klausen, 2000). Most modeling and EMG studies of the vertical jump have also shown the interaction of muscle activation and coordination (Bobbert & van Zandwijk, 1999 Bobbert & van Soest, 1994 van Zandwijk, Bobbert, Munneke, & Pas, 2000), while some other studies have shown that strength parameters do not affect coordination (Tomioka, Owings, & Grabiner,...
Knowledge to determine how muscles create human movement. Kinesiology professionals and students of biomechanics need to continually review their knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. Muscles tend to be activated in synergies to cooperate or coordinate with other forces to achieve movement goals. Muscle tension is created from active or passive components, and the action muscles create are either eccentric, concentric, or isometric. Biomechanical research has shown that the actions of muscles in normal movement are more complicated than what is hypothesized by functional anatomy. The Range-of-Motion Principle of biomechanics can be used to improve human movement. Modifying range of motion in the countermovement of the vertical jump, as well as the stride and body rotations in the overarm throw, were
It is also important to understand that the ultimate strength of bone depends on nutritional, hormonal, and physical activity factors. Research done with an elite power-lifter found that the ultimate compressive strength of a lumbar vertebral body (more than 36,000 N or 4 tons) estimated from bone mineral measurements was twice that of the previous maximal value. More recent studies of drop jump training in pre-pubescent children has demonstrated that bone density can be increased, but it is unclear if peak forces, rates of loading, or repetitions are the training stimulus for the increases in bone mass (Bauer, Fuchs, Smith, & Snow, 2001). More research on the os-teogenic effects of various kinds of loading and exercise programs could help physical educators design programs that help school children build bone mass. The following section will outline the mechanical response of ligaments to loading.
|Vertical Jump Guide Vertical Explosion Program|
Plyometrics Fitness Adrenaline
It Seems Incredible That You Can Get Your Ideal Body By Jumping. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources For The Fitness Adrenaline.