Vinegar Ebook

Apple Cider Vinegar Benefits

Apple cider vinegar gives you an easy way to be more healthy, and gives you the opportunity to lose a lot of weight without having to put much effort at all into the process. That is just one of the benefits that this ebook guide will outline. All too often pharmaceutical drugs can cause massive kidney damage, which is why many people would rather use more natural healing agents, as opposed to causing damage to their systems by using too many dangerous drugs. Since the days of Hippocrates, vinegar has been used for healing properties. You will learn all about the side effects, healing properties, and uses of apple cider vinegar. You no longer have to use dangerous pharm drugs in an attempt to heal yourself You do not any pharmacist trying to push drugs on you that you don't need All you have to is use a vinegar to heal yourself! It really doesn't take much! Continue reading...

Apple Cider Vinegar Benefits Summary


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Production of Vinegar

Vinegar is literally a result of souring (aigre) of wine (vin). The origin of vinegar no doubt followed the production of wine, because a bad batch of wine will result in some form of vinegar. Vinegar has been used as a flavoring agent, food preservation agent, and even as medicine. Both Eastern and Western cultures have records of vinegar in ancient history. Although vinegar production is always treated as a part of food fermentation, it is, in reality, an oxidative process. In the presence of molecular oxygen and Aceto-bacter aceti, or related species, alcohol is oxidized to acetic acid. Historically vinegar was made by the let-alone process or the field process poor quality wine was allowed to sit in the open air for oxidation to occur. Currently the methods to make vinegar are the trickling process and the submerge culture generator. In the trickling process, wine is trickled into a Frings-type generator where the liquid comes in contact with wood shavings, thereby exposing it to...

Sherry wine vinegar

Sherry wine vinegar is a vinegar produced by traditional methods involving slow ageing in wooden barrels. Garcia Parilla M.C. et al.76 investigated changes in phenolic compounds during ageing of sherry vinegars. The samples are from the two classes Vinagre de Jerez, aged for less than two years and Vinagre de Jerez Reserva, aged for more then two years. Phenolic compounds are determined by HPLC and photodiode array detection. Statistical analysis by multiple analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows significant differences between the groups. Three compounds show an increasing trend in most of the ageing systems. These are gallic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfuraldehyde, and coumaroyltartaric acid.


Used for thousands of years for medicinal purposes and to flavor and preserve food through pickling, vinegar is the result of a natural process, the invasion of an alcoholic drink with air-breathing bacteria that turn it to acetic acid. In fact, the English word vinegar is derived from French vin aigre, meaning sour wine. There was no shortage of sour wine in the Middle Ages, when most wine was drunk young because it did not keep well. The same was true with beer, which also served as the basis for vinegar. Medieval cookbooks sometimes ask for wine or vinegar, beer or vinegar, and watered vinegar. For the lower classes vinegar was the universal seasoning that was widely available and cheap, but aristocratic cooks also used it for sauces, stuffings, and fish, for instance. As a cool and dry foodstuff it was recommended to be eaten in the summer and in warm regions. It was good for fighting toothache, for cooling the body, quenching the thirst, stopping the flow of blood, treating burns...

Applications of Microbiology to Foods

Ancient Egyptians used fermentation to produce beer and convert grape juice to wine. They also practiced the aerobic conversion of the alcohol in wine to the acetic acid of vinegar, and the leavening of bread. The present practices of using, for example, pectin-ases for enhanced release of fruit juices from tissue and amylases for the enzymatic modification of starches, are examples involving the indirect application of microorganisms to foods and food components. The production of xanthan gum by the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris for use as a viscosity agent in beverages and semisolid food products is an example of the use of an originally undesirable organism for the production of a desirable food and beverage additive. The use of the mold Aspergillus niger to produce high yields of citric acid as a food and beverage acidulant was established in the 1920s and is a classic example of an initial surface culture process that was eventually converted to a submerged...

Selective Isolation as a Result of Sequential Biochemical Activity

The production of vinegar represents a unique sequence of environmental and biochemical events. The sugars in a fruit juice are first fermented anaerobically by yeasts to ethanol, which is then subjected to vigorous aeration, resulting in the oxidative conversion of ethyl alcohol to acetic acid (usually 4-5 ) by resident acetic acid bacteria. Ethanol as an intermediate product will sustain the growth of fewer microorganisms than will glucose because it contains less energy than glucose and is therefore more restrictive with respect to microorganisms capable of attacking it. Acetic acid contains even less energy than ethanol, and, at a level of 4 , results in complete microbial preservation or stability in the absence of oxygen.

Importance of Water Ionization and Buffers

At equilibrium, the concentration of free protons in water is equal to the concentration of free hydroxyl ions. The product of the two ion concentrations is called the ion product of water (Kw). When a solution is acidic, it contains a higher concentration of free protons and a lower concentration of free hydroxyl ions. Likewise, a basic solution contains more free hydroxyl ions than free protons. To simplify the expression of proton concentrations, the negative logarithm of the free proton concentration (-log H+ ) has been defined as the power of hydrogen, or pH, where pH + pOH 14. For example, the pH of bleach, a strong basic solution, is 12.6, whereas the pH of vinegar, a weak acid, is 2.9. The pH of blood is 7.4. Solutions with a pH of 7 are said to be neutral that is, neither acid nor base.

Historical Developments

In the eighteenth century, SSF was used to make vinegar from apple pomace. The beginning of the twentieth century marked the use of SSF for the production of enzymes and organic acids using molds. There were several other developments of SSF technology for nonfood application in subsequent years. The period of the 1970s saw a major focus on production of SCP.

The use of pH control to preserve vegetables fruits sauces and cereal products

Vegetables (including fruits such as cucumbers, melons and olives) have pH values above 5.2, and the undissociated forms of the responsible acids (predominantly malic and citric acids) are present only at very low concentrations and have little if any inhibitory effect per se. These products may be preserved by low pH obtained by lactic fermentation or addition of vinegar. In the latter method, boiled vinegar is added to the blanched raw materials (e.g., cucumbers) to give a concentration of acetic acid of at least 0.5 (according to the German Code of Practice 'Leits tze') and a pH of about 3.7 (corresponding to about 90 mmoles of undissociated acetic acid per kg). This level of acetic acid is tolerated sensorially if sugar or sweeteners are added to the brine. For long shelf life at ambient temperatures, the products are usually pasteurized in order to inactivate some strains of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria or acetic acid bacteria that may slowly proliferate in the presence of high...

Egg Yolkbased Products

Mayonnaise is made by mixing yolks with salt, dry mustard, and lemon juices (or vinegar) before whisking or blending in oil in a ratio of 1 7 (yolk mixture oil) to make a stable emulsion (Fig. 5). Due to Salmonella enteritis (SE), a possible food poisoning threat, the egg yolks are pasteurized or cooked before utilization. However, when mayonnaise is made at home or in specialty restaurants, no cooking is done to obtain superior flavor. Acidifying with lemon juice just reduces the risk. Aioli is the French version (from Provance) of mayonnaise, in which garlic and extra virgin olive oils are used. Egg cooking sauces, salad dressings, dips, and spreads are variations of mayonnaise and are made under the same principles. Egg-containing sauces, salad dressings, dips, and spreads

Traditional Biotechnology

The roots of biotechnology can be found in the ancient processes of food and beverage fermentation. These traditional technologies are present in almost every culture in the world and have evolved over many years without losing their traditional essence. Examples of these processes include the production of some well-known foods, such as bread, wine, yogurt, and cheese. These products, like many others (such as ripened sausages salami , pickles, sauerkraut, soy sauce, vinegar, beer, and cider), are produced using the natural processes of living organisms (e.g., fermentation) in other words, by using biotechnology. Some relatively new developments in these traditional products include bio-yogurts, or biogurts, which contain extra bacteria (usually probiotic organisms) that are not found naturally in the original food. These probiotic bacteria most often include Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Another traditional biotechnology technique is the production of...

Origin Botanical Facts

Roots that are firm and free of blemishes should be selected. The root can be refrigerated in a plastic bag for up to a week. Usually grated and used raw, the root must be washed, scrubbed, and peeled before grating by hand or with a food processor. Vinegar or lemon juice can be added to the grated horseradish to retard the enzyme process that produces the distinctive bite. For a mild sauce, 2 to 3 tablespoons of lemon juice or vinegar can be added to a cup of horseradish along with a half teaspoon of salt immediately after grating. For a hot sauce, the grated horseradish should be allowed to stand a few minutes before the lemon juice or vinegar is added. Because heat causes the root to release a pungent smell, horseradish should never be cooked. Grated horseradish is used as a condiment on fish, beef, chicken, and sausages. It is usually combined with oil and vinegar or with cream to make sauces for beef, smoked fish, or asparagus. Horseradish is the ingredient that provides the...

Potential Applications And Future Developments

Application of immobilized enzymes seems promising in several areas. These include the following use of sulfhy-dryl oxidase to remove the cooked flavor in UHT milk, use of trypsin to control the development of an oxidized flavor in stored milk, and the dibittering of citrus juices by enzymes that alter the bitter component limonene. Immobilized proteases could be used for chill-proofing beer, for limited hydrolysis of soy proteins to improve functionality, and for continuous production of curd for cheese making. Immobilized yeasts could be used for brewing beer and immobilized bacteria for production of vinegar.

Formation of Ketone Bodies

The main blood-borne substrates for the synthesis of ketone bodies (ketogenesis) are the nonesterified fatty acids others of lesser importance are the branched-chain amino acids, leucine and isoleucine. In addition, acetate (sources intestinal fermentation, in vinegar or an oxidation product of ethanol) is a ketogenic substrate.

Definitions Of Lipids

The traditional definition of total fat of foods used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been the sum of the components with lipid characteristics that are extracted by Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods or by reliable and appropriate procedures.'' The FDA has changed from a solubility-based definition to total lipid fatty acids expressed as triglycerides'' 4 , with the intent to measure caloric fatty acids. Solubility and size of fatty acids affect their caloric values. This is important for products that take advantage of this, such as Benefat Salatrim, so these products would be examined on a case-by-case basis. Food products containing sucrose polyesters would require special methodology to calculate caloric fatty acids. Foods containing vinegar ( 4.5 acetic acid) present a problem because they will be considered to have 4.5 fat unless the definition is modified to exclude water-soluble fatty acids or the caloric weighting for acetic acid is...

Asepsis In Fermentation Process

Exist many fermentation industries e.g., ethanol, baker's yeast, and vinegar, where asepsis is not a matter of concern. Economic considerations suggest that a contamination probability of 1 in 100 is acceptable for batch fermentations, considering a contamination probability of 1 in 1000 taken into design calculations for a sterilization process (180). Recombinant microorganisms are at a greater risk of being overwhelmed by wild organisms. Cell culture fermentations are susceptible to microbial contamination due to a longer fermentation process and a slow growth rate. However, with use of aseptic procedures large scale animal cell cultures are operated with a contamination rate of about 2 (181).

Gram Negative Polarly Flagellated Bacteria

Acetobacter is also a member of this group of gramnegative bacteria. This organism oxidizes alcohol to acetic acid. In making vinegar it is desirable however, in making wine it is the most important organism causing souring. Photobacterium can cause phosphorescence of meat and fish when incubated in suitable conditions. Halobacterium can grow in salt concentrations as high as 30 . It can produce pigments and spoil salty fish.

Sensory properties within foods

There are a relatively large number of findings of differences between PTC PROP taster groups in their hedonic response to foods and their sensory properties, and particularly to foods dominated by particular tastes. Clearly, the relatively fixed pattern of hedonic responses to basic tastes do not entirely determine our response to those tastes within food and beverage flavours. Hence, while bitterness per se appears to be universally disliked (Prescott 1998), beer and coffee are two of the most consumed beverages worldwide. Such preferences will also reflect the effects of various types of associative learning and culture that are independent of genetic factors (Rozin 1982). Nevertheless, PROP PTC tasters have more food aversions than non-tasters, especially to bitter-tasting foods (Drewnowski and Rock 1995 Fischer, Griffin et al. 1961 Glanville and Kaplan 1965). A range of bitter foods, including Brussels sprouts, cabbage, broccoli and spinach (Kaminski, Henderson and Drewnowski...

Fermentation Anaerobic Digestion

Fermentation is defined as the process of substrate degradation in the absence of oxygen. The best known (to humans) fermentations involve the production of beer, wine, or vinegar (acetate), which is also an important end-product of ruminal and intestinal fermentations. Nearly all feed protein and carbohydrates can be degraded by bacteria via ruminal fermentation to produce volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial cells (Fig. 1). The VFA are absorbed by the host animal and provide the animal with a source of carbon and energy for maintenance and productive functions. The most important VFA to the animal are acetate (vinegar), propionate, and butyrate. Microbial cells (bodies) are washed out of the rumen along with the small feed particles and are also digested, providing the ruminant animal with an excellent source of high-quality protein (especially essential amino acids), as well as B vitamins as a by-product of fermentation. Thus, the ruminant provides the microorganisms a...

Microorganisms and food

The production of foodstuffs as a result of microbial fermentation reactions predates recorded history. The accidental discovery that such foods were less susceptible to spoilage than fresh foods must have made them an attractive proposition to people in those far-off days. Of course, until relatively recent times, nothing was known of the part played by microorganisms, so the production of beer, cheese and vinegar would not have been the carefully controlled processes that are used today. Indeed, it was only with the development of isolation techniques towards the end of the nineteenth century (recall Chapter 1), that it became possible to use pure cultures in food production for the first time. The fermentation of foodstuffs, hitherto an art, became a science. Food products Alcoholic drinks Dairy products Bread Vinegar Pickled foods Mushrooms Single-cell protein Products from microorganisms Enzymes Amino acids Antibiotics Citric acid Mining industries Metal extraction...

Methods of food preservation

Fermentation is a gradual chemical change caused by the enzymes of some bacteria, moulds, and yeasts. Fermented beverages were ubiquitous in the earliest civilisations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Not only did wine facilitate conviviality, it was usually more potable than the available water. Winemaking also served as a means of storing nutrients from grapes almost indefinitely. Similarly, Asian steppe dwellers turned mare's milk into koumiss, a fermented beverage that keeps much longer than unprocessed milk. Many cheeses with a long shelf life are produced by lactic-acid fermentation. One means of pickling, a very early form of food preservation, is to treat foods with vinegar, a liquid obtained by further fermenting alcoholic beverages.

Types Of Fermentation Processes Single Culture Fermentation

The key to the success of single-culture fermentation is to provide the culture with a sterile substrate and environment with no contamination during the fermentation process. Examples include wine making, beer making, bread making, production of single-culture fermented dairy products, and vinegar production. In this type of fermentation the viable cells increase in a typical growth curve sequence of lag phase, log phase, stationary phase, and death phase. Primary metabolites (alcohol, acid, etc) are made during the log phase, and secondary products (antibiotics, toxins, etc) are made after the culture reaches the stationary phase.

Solidstate Fermentation

Solid-state fermentation has been used long before the underlying microbiological or biochemical processes involved were understood. The use of naturally occurring microorganisms in the preparation of foods such as bread and cheese, or directly as food such as mushrooms, dates back many centuries, and these are some examples of traditional solid-state fermentation systems (4). As early as 2600 b.c., Egyptians were making bread by methods essentially similar to those of today (4). In Asia, cheese had been prepared as food for several hundred years before the birth of Christ (4). The preparation of koji for soy sauce and miso production in Japan and Southeast Asia goes back as far as 1000 years ago and probably 3000 years ago in China (4,5). Preservation of fish, meat, and other animal products by solid-state fermentation goes back about 2500 years (4). Vinegar was produced by solid-state fermentation from fruit pomace in the eighteenth century (5). The production of gallic acid is...

Invasive Bacteria Salmonella Infections

Then grow given the right conditions. However, mayonnaise, paradoxically, is best kept at room rather than refrigerator temperatures if contaminated with salmonella. This is because acid, in the form of lemon juice or vinegar, kills salmonella more efficiently at warm than cool temperatures.

Water And Wastewater Disinfection Treatment

Wastewater Disinfection

As for those disinfection strategies intended to negatively change the permeability or perhaps water content of cells, numerous examples can be seen with foods prepared in percentile-level salt, sugar, or organic-acid-rich conditions (e.g., pickles, candied fruits, cheeses, vinegar, tomato catsup). These preservation environments, many of which yield osmotic pressures intolerable to active cell growth, facilitate a bacteriostatic condition in which microbial growth has been effectively stopped without specifically killing the original cells. Large-scale adjustments to the osmotic pressure within water, wastewater, or sludge treatment processes would, of course, be infeasible given the necessary chemical dosage requirement (i.e., at expensive, high percentage levels).

Problems in combining traditional preservation techniques

Vinegar) and NaCl had a synergistic inhibitory effect on E. coli 0157 H7 (Entani et al., 1997). However, such combinations of agents are not always more inhibitory to pathogens than one alone. Casey and Condon (2002) reported that NaCl reduces the inhibitory effect of lactic acid on E. coli 0157 H7, by raising the cytoplasmic pH, with approximately 1000-fold more survivors at pH 4.2 when 4 NaCl was added to the medium. This study suggests that E. coli can use NaCl to counteract acidification of its cytoplasm by organic acids, and in addition, that combinations of antimicrobial agents cannot always be relied upon to achieve additive antimicrobial effects.

Olfactionsmell Theories Of

Exposed to the photon Raman showed that the interaction of vibrating molecules with photons passing through them alters the spectrum of the scattered light, either increasing or decreasing it by a fixed amount thus, the Raman effect enables the probing of molecular energy levels and became an important spectroscopic technique that is used universally . The gas chromatographic approach is based on the observation that the same sort of across-fiber patterns that are found in the sense of taste seem to be present in the olfactory smell system, where it is likely that the code for smell qualities will be found in these patterns. However, a label-ed-line theory, such as applied to taste, may not be feasible for olfaction because it has many more types of labeled lines where there is no small list of primary smells for olfaction as there is for taste gustation. Thus, at present, there is no evidence of olfactory fibers falling into groups as the taste fibers seem to display. The...

From Antibiotics To Biologics

Drug discovery began in ancient times with the use of plants as medicinal treatments and centered more recently on the isolation and purification of their bioactive ingredients. Fermentation processes have been used since antiquity to produce a multitude of food products (cheese, yogurt, vinegar, wine, beer, and bread) but the scientific basis of fermentation was unknown and became a topic of contention between chemists and microbiologists as to the underlying cause, chemical or microbial. Pasteur's publication on fermentation in 1857 largely laid the matter to rest by not only associating organisms with fermentation in every case but by describing the specific organisms associated with each (alcohol by yeasts, lactic acid by nonmotile bacteria, and butyric acid by motile rods) (58). Fermentation, when combined with microbial strain improvement (via mutant screening), was an important technological platform that served to produce everything from food for man and animals to acetone and...

Changes in food preferences after infancy

By becoming unfashionable and no longer considered appropriate for human consumption a perfectly good food can disappear. This was the fate of the parsnip in France which was once widely eaten but is now largely unknown nevertheless it remains very popular in other European countries. The generally accepted explanation is that although well known in the fourteenth century (Pichon 1847) parsnips, known as escheroys or panais, were used less and less while carrots grew in popularity, finally the parsnip was cultivated only as a fodder crop for animals and gradually it was perceived as being suitable only for this. As other crops replaced it in this respect, especially the higher yielding varieties of beet, the parsnip finally disappeared. The perception of a food as being mainly something eaten by the poor can also lead to its demise in 1920 there were more than 200 shops preparing and selling tripe in Manchester and now there are essentially none (Mason 2002). In contrast to these...

Solidstate bioprocessing

Fermented foods have been consumed by humans all over the world for centuries. Most fermentation processes are conducted with liquid nutrient broths. Well known examples in the food industry are the production of yogurt, beer, wine, lactic acid, and many food flavors (213). However, partial fermentation and aerobic microbial growth based bioprocessing has also been used for processing food and food wastes. Here, instead of a nutrient broth, moist solid nutrients with minimal water are used as a substrate for microbial growth. This process is referred to as solid-state bioprocessing. Microbial fermentation and aerobic microbial growth on foods in solid state, for preservation of food and flavor enhancement, has been done for centuries and some of the common examples for these processes include manufacture of cheese and bread (214). Other wellknown examples are the production of microbe laced cheeses such as Roquefort, and the production of fermented sausages. In Asia, solidstate...

Novel Bioreactor Designs

Some bacteria will form biofilms on any surface such as metal, plastic, and glass. However, certain bacteria, such as lactobacilli, require something to stimulate this biofilm development (33). Plastic composite support (PCS) developed at Iowa State University has proven to stimulate biofilm development of Lactobacillus casei (22,34,36), Zymomonas mobilis (37,38), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (37,38,39), and Actinobacillus succinogenes (40). PCS is a high temperature extruded material consisting of at least 50 polypropylene, plus ground soybean hulls, bovine albumin and various culture micronutrients. Soybean hulls keep the extruded product porous due to the release of steam as the PCS leaves the extruder die. Bovine albumin performs as a natural plastizer which protects the temperature sensitive micronutrients. Micronutrients are selected based on the specific cultural requirements for amino acids, vitamins, and lipids. Monosaccharides are avoided due to poor PCS production. For example,...

Muscle foods meat poultry and fish products

A few cooked meat products (e.g., 'brawns') are preserved by acetic acid in combination with pasteurization. In the manufacture of such products, pieces of meat, sausage or ham are placed in a brine containing vinegar, gelatin, other solidifying agents (such as agar), salt, sugar and spices. The product is then heated to a core temperature between 720C and 80oC. It contains about 60 of meat and 40 of solidified brine, has a pH of about 5.2 and is stable at ambient temperatures for about one week (Leistner and Gould, 2002). Use of organic acids to stabilize the more common cooked meats such as frankfurters and cooked hams is limited because water binding capacity is decreased, resulting in jelly separation, low yields and unsatisfactory eating quality. An example of a meat product in which the pH hurdle is successfully used to stabilize it is 'Gelderse Rookwurst'. To prepare this sausage, glucono-6-lactone is added to lower the pH to 5.4-5.6 after stuffing, jelly separation is...

Acetic Acid Acetates

Acetic acid (pKa 4.75), the primary component of vinegar, and its sodium, potassium, and calcium salts are some of the oldest food antimicrobials. Derivatives of acetic acid including diacetate salts and dehydroacetic acid have also been used as food antimicrobials. In contrast to most organic acids, acetic acid is generally more effective against yeasts and bacteria than against molds (10). Bacteria inhibited include Bacillus, Clostridium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella. Only Ace-tobacter species (microorganisms involved in vinegar production), lactic acid bacteria, and butyric acid bacteria are tolerant to acetic acid (7,11). Some yeasts and molds are sensitive to acetic acid and include species ot Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and some strains of Saccharo-myces (7).

Cell Physics

It is important to distinguish between the indirect and the direct effect of microgravity. Among the indirect effects are the absence of sedimentation and the loss of gravity-driven convection. The latter include density-driven phase separation (vinegar goes to bottom and oil goes to top), and thermal convection (heated liquids rise), which are caused by buoyancy. In normal gravity, thermal convection establishes a current that rapidly dissipates heat, renews nutrient supplies, and removes waste materials. This factor is most important when no fluid flow (like blood flow) exists to dissipate metabolic products and exchange nutrients around the cell. Without convection, slow diffusion processes are the only means for heat and nutrient exchange. This factor is likely to be most relevant in plants and single celled microorganisms such as bacteria that have no motile structures like cilia or flagella. Although

Day 14 Recipe

2 Tblsp balsamic or red wine vinegar 1 Tblsp olive oil Prepare tortellini as package directs. Add broccoli during last 2 minutes of cooking. Drain pineapple, reserve 1 4 cup juice. Combine reserved juice, vinegar, and oil in large serving bowl. Drain tortellini and broccoli. Add tortellini, broccoli, sausage, bell pepper, and pineapple to serving bowl. Toss well to coat evenly. Serve at room temperature or chilled.


Simulated Vinegar One way to make vinegar (not the preferred way) is to prepare a solution of acetic acid, the sole acid component of vinegar, at the proper pH (see Fig. 2-15) and add appropriate flavoring agents. Acetic acid (Mr 60) is a liquid at 25 C, with a density of 1.049 g mL. Calculate the volume that must be added to distilled water to make 1 L of simulated vinegar (see Fig. 2-16).


Lettuce has been used in the kitchen for thousands of years. Hippocrates and other Greek writers discussed it, and the Romans were fond of it. Because of its proven sleep-inducing or soporific qualities, it was originally eaten at the end of a meal, but later also with vinegar at the beginning as an appetite stimulant. In the Middle Ages lettuce appears to have played a minor role in European cookery, at least before 1400. By the sixteenth century, however, it was used for raw salads across the Continent. Part of the resistance to eating raw lettuce came from the medical community, which classified lettuce as so extremely cold and moist in nature that it was believed to be capable of quenching a person's thirst and even extinguishing any feelings of lust.


Unlike many ferns, blechnums do not have an illustrious history of miraculous offerings of herbal cures. Britten (1881), in his delightfully informative and intellectually entertaining book, European Ferns, comments rather apologetically on the hard fern (the vernacular name for B. spicant, aka Lomaria spicant in those days) in the good old times, when no plant was considered entirely destitute of'virtues', it was not regarded as quite useless. He goes on to recommend a concoction of dried fronds and vinegar to dissolve hardness of the spleen.

Effect of acidulante

Propionic, sorbic and benzoic acids are classified by food legislators as 'preservatives' rather than 'acidulants', e.g., in Annex III to EU Directive 95 2. In foods manufactured with the addition of vinegar, acetic acid acts both as a source of external hydrogen ions and as a proton carrier though the membranes. However, because acetic acid is a natural metabolite in human metabolism and because it has been used in food preservation for thousands of years (see Adams, 1998), it is not classified as a food preservative in EU Directive 95 2.


Used the leaves and the seed, taught the Romans how to prepare the condiment. In the Roman cookbook of Apicius mustard is one of the most popular flavorings, described as a preparation made from mustard seed, vinegar, salt, and honey. It was the Romans who are said to have introduced white and black mustard to Britain. Like caraway, mustard grew in abundance in medieval Europe, and hence was readily available and much cheaper than the highly sought-after exotic spices. To the eleventh-century German nun Hildegard of Bingen it was poor man's food. Then as now the condiment was frequently eaten together with meat and sausages. In the fourteenth century the first commercial mustard production developed around Dijon, France, a place still famous today for its mustard. Classified by physicians as extremely hot and dry in nature, mustard was prescribed against excessive phlegm in the body, especially in the head and the stomach.

Acids and alkalis

Exposure to corrosive acids and alkalis is most commonly encountered by the dermal route, as ingestion of such caustic compounds would be most unusual in the cat. Treatment is primarily aimed at removing the irritant substance from the skin by extensive washing with water. Attempts to neutralise the offending substance can also be attempted, for example, using vinegar to neutralise alkaline material. If significant quantities of acidic or alkaline material are ingested, gastric lavage should only be performed with an appropriate neutralising agent, as corrosive damage to the upper alimentary tract is possible. Pain relief (e.g. buprenorphine) and the use of gastric protective agents are indicated. Appropriate steps should be taken to address any acid-base balance disturbance, should a metabolic acidosis or alkalosis develop.

Food Additives

The practice of adding chemicals (eg, salt, spices, herbs, vinegar, and smoke) to food dates back many centuries. In recent years, however, the ubiquitous presence of chemical additives in processed foods has attracted much attention and public concern over the long-term safety of additives to humans.

Otitis Externa

TREATMENT A thorough and atraumatic cleansing of the ear canal is the most important part of therapy. For mild infections, dry mopping using a small tuft of cotton attached to a wire applicator is sufficient and may be curative. If the canal is inflamed, edematous, and occluded by debris, cleansing can be done with gentle suctioning a soft plastic infant feeding tube (with an opening at the tip) attached to a DeLee trap can be used. If there is no perforation of the TM, irrigation with warm hypertonic (3 ) saline solution, or 2 acetic acid in Burow's solution (Otic Domeboro) is helpful. Acidified isopropyl alcohol (equal parts vinegar and alcohol) or hydrogen peroxide can also be used, followed by drying with suction, compressed air, or a hair dryer. The use of cotton swabs to clean the ears should be strongly discouraged.2 22 If the canal cannot be cleaned sufficiently, an otowick can be placed in the canal to act as a passage for the use of drops. It can be left in place for 2 to 3...


Although gelatin could be used in a variety of food products, its use is essentially limited to preparation of meltable-in-the-mouth water-dessert gels (gelatin desserts), meat products, and marshmallows and other confectioneries. It is also used to stabilize emulsions as a stabilizer for ice cream and other dairy products as a clarifying agent for wines, vinegar, and juices and in bakery fillings and icings. It is not normally used as a thickener but is used to thicken low-fat spreads where the gel structure is broken down by processing and tempered by hydrophobic ingredients such as oils and emulsifiers.

Preparation Tips

Using a tenderizer also makes tough cuts more palatable. Acid ingredients such as vinegar, yogurt, cider wine, citrus juice, and tomatoes often are used in marinades because they tenderize the meat. Natural enzymes such as papaya, figs, and pineapple also can be used for the same purpose. Cover meat with the marinade and place it in a non-metallic container in the refrigerator for 6 to 24 hours.


It is also important to note that there are modifications to this naming system that bring novel naming systems into existence. Trivial (common) nomenclature, which includes circumstantially assigned names, for example, source names, is widely used. The English system of trivial name arose from the practice of adding the suffix -ic to a root indicative of the natural source or some property of the acid for example, acetic (ethanoic) acid from the Latin word acetum, meaning vinegar stearic (octadecanoic) acid from the Greek word stear, meaning tallow palmitic (hexadecanoic) acid from palm oil and oleic (octadecenoic) acid from the Latin word oleum, meaning oil.


Pineapples (Ananas comosus, of the family Bromeliaceae) are native to tropical South America and are grown in nearly all tropical areas. The plant is a rosette of long, stiff, fleshy leaves that produces a short flower stem. The individual fruitlets fuse to produce a compound fruit. Despite its economic importance, only one cultivar is of commercial importance. The cultivar Smooth Cayenne comprises 95 of the worldwide crop. The major processed products are solid pack (slices, chunks, and tidbits), crushed (dices), and juice. The fruits are handled by a machine called a ginaca, which processes about 100 pineapples a minute into eight fractions the cylinder, core, skin, eradicator meat from the skin, crown end, eradicator meat from the crown end, butt end, and eradicator meat from the butt end. The cylinder is used to make the high-value products slices, chunks, tidbits, and crushed pineapple. The eradicator fractions and the core are used to make juice. The skin, crown end, and butt...

Safety Issues

Like all living organisms, fish can occasionally carry various parasites. These parasites are easily destroyed by normal cooking procedures. In pickled products, such as pickled herring, the acidity of the vinegar used in pickling, often in combination with salt, preserves products and destroys parasites and harmful bacteria.

Formic acid

Formic acid is a metabolite but its concentration is very low. It is the oxidation product of methanol and formaldehyde (formalin). Formic acid is a by-product in acetic acid fermentation in vinegar production it is not contained in synthetic acetic acid. Formic acid is a part of the 'volatile acids' in wine. As formic acid in low concentrations has both a bactericidal and fungicidal effect, it can be used as a food preservative. Moulds tend to produce formic acid as a metabolite, hence determination of formic acid can give an indication as to the properties, e.g., the degree of decomposition, of samples.


This fatty fish of the North Atlantic was one of the most important foodstuffs of medieval Europe. Swimming in big shoals, herrings were caught in large numbers by fishing fleets in the Baltic and the North Sea. Only some of the catch was eaten fresh the vast majority was pickled, packed several hundred to a barrel, and shipped to consumers across the Continent. Soaking in brine, drying, and smoking were the most common ways of making this highly perishable foodstuff more durable. Red herring were fish that were first gutted, then cured in brine, hung up to dry, and heavily smoked, which changed their color. White herrings were cured fish that retained their silver appearance and kept better than red herring. Other popular ways of preserving herring were to hot-smoke the gutted or ungutted fish to the point of cooking the meat, or to pickle herring in wine and vinegar or just vinegar. The amounts of herring consumed in medieval households were sometimes staggering. In one year in the...

Gamete competition

Gamete competition can occur when gametes from two or more males are vying for the same set of female gametes. However, in the context of this book, gamete competition has been defined by 'the finding that contaxon gametes are superior to het-erotaxon gametes in fathering progeny, when both gamete types are present'. Such competition can occur in animals, regardless of whether fertilization is external or internal, and can affect plant crosses regardless of the mechanism of pollen transfer. The minimum requirement for the occurrence of gamete competition is the presence of multiple, divergent, male gamete types. Below I consider an example for which numerous data sets have been collected. This example involves the vinegar fly species Drosophila simulans and Drosophila mauri-tiana. For these species, gamete competition is but one reproductive isolating mechanism in a complex sequence. However, experimental results indicate that this barrier is quite strong.

Surface Fermentation

Submerged Fermentation Images

The oldest and a relatively simple method for production of complex flavour extracts is the fermentation of flavour raw materials by bacteria and moulds (aspergillus, mucor) on solid nutrient media. The media is placed in simple thermostatic boxes on baking-tray like plates to which the micro-organisms are inoculated. This technique which has originated in Japan for the production of Koiji seasonings is still used today for the production of soy sauce made from rough-ground cereals and soy beans which are inoculated with special moulds. After incubating the nutrient media for several days, it is finally extracted with water to isolate the fermented products contained in the media 5 . For many years the Koiji technique was also the preferred method for the production of enzymes which are secreted by bacteria and moulds into the extracellular environment (the nutrient media). Another example for a traditional surface fermentation process is vinegar production by acetic acid bacteria...


This slimy parasitic fish that sucks the blood of larger fish lives in the sea, but like the salmon it spawns in rivers. The Romans not only considered lampreys a delicacy, those who could afford it also kept them in ponds as pets. In medieval Europe, lampreys continued to be eaten by the wealthy, especially on meatless days. Along with other sea fish they were sold by fishmongers in the big cities. Judging from the surviving recipes, eel and lamprey were at times used interchangeably. One way of preparing lamprey was to cut it in pieces and roast them on a grill, another was to pickle the pieces in vinegar. Classified by physicians as cold but less moist than eel, lampreys were generally considered nutritious food. However, unless prepared with salt and pepper, they were thought to be harmful to people with weak and moist stomachs, and to generate blood of a phlegmatic nature.

Polyphenol Oxidase

The inhibitory effect of calcium appears to be related to its preservation of membrane structure or direct inhibition of PPO. Stem browning in lettuce can be reduced by washing stem disks with solutions of 0.3 M calcium chloride, 0.1 mM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 0.5 M acetic acid (Thomas-Barberan et al., 1997). Calcium also caused a 60 decrease in PAL activity but had no substantial effect on the accumulation of phenolic compounds. Unlike acetic acid that irreversibly inhibited PAL activity, 2,4-D had a 60 inhibition. It also had an inhibitive effect on the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. A mixture of vinegar and acetic acid solution could also be used to prevent lettuce butt discoloration (Castaner et al., 1996). Cysteine, resorcinol, EDTA and citric acid are also effective in the prevention of lettuce browning during storage.

Head Lice

TREATMENT Two important aspects of treatment should be addressed treating the current infection and preventing reinfestation. Several agents may be used to treat the infestation. Permethrin 1 (Nix) rinse should be used as first-line therapy. Unlike lindane and pyrethrins, permethrin is ovacidal as well as pediculicidal. After shampooing, the treatment should be applied to the scalp for 10 min. For cosmetic reasons, nits can be removed by rinsing the hair in a 50 vinegar solution and then combing the hair with a fine-toothed comb.


The history of canning began with Nicholas Appert, a French confectioner, who heated foods in wide-mouthed, corked glass bottles in boiling water to preserve them for use by the French military. At the time, preservation was primarily through drying or the addition of 'a foreign substance for the purpose of impeding fermentation or putrefaction' (sugar, salt, vinegar), each process having specific drawbacks (Appert, 1812). The French government, at war with several countries, offered rewards for the development of means to use 'indigenous substances' and 'diminish the consumption of foreign commodities' (specifically, sugar). The French navy began using Appert's 'canned' (bottled) meats, vegetables, fruits and milk around 1806, which led to his reward of 12 000 francs in 1809 for his process for preserving foods (Drummond and Lewis, 1939). Although Leeuwenhoek had described bacteria viewed through his microscope in 1683, their role in food was unknown at the time. In 1810 Appert...

Table Olives

Bruised olives are obtained from whole fruit, fresh or previously treated in brine, subjected to a process whereby the flesh is opened without breaking the stone, which remains whole and intact within the fruit. They may be treated in weak lye and are preserved in brine, possibly flavored, with or without the addition of vinegar. They are prepared from either green or turning-color type. Split Olives. Split olives are green olives, turning-color olives, or black olives split lengthwise by cutting into the skin and part of the flesh and then placed in brine, with or without vinegar olive oil and aromatic substances may be added. They may be untreated or treated previously with alkali.


Coffee extract, fruit juices, milk, beer, wine, and vinegar have been concentrated by freeze concentration. Freeze concentration is also used to recover potable water in the form of meltable ice from sea water and brackish water. A less-selective analogous process, partial solidification, is used to separate high-melting fats from low-melting fats.

Common Spices

All Masala Ingested

Mustard seeds can be used in pickling foods. Ground seeds can be added to sauces or to add zip to salad dressings. The condiment can be eaten on meat and fish and added to salad dressings or mayonnaise. Keep prepared mustard in the refrigerator to preserve its flavor. For a different flavor, look for mustard varieties made with wine or vinegar. Vinegar Vinegar is used in almost every culture as a condiment. It can be made from a wide range of foodstuffs from grains, fruits, wine, or even ethyl alcohol. Essentially, the process to turn any of these into vinegar is the same. Bacteria is added to an alcohol solution to convert the alcohol in acetic acid. The liquid is then processed and pasteurized to kill any organisms in it that might be harmful to humans. It also may be distilled before it is bottled for consumer use. Vinegar's tart, acidic flavor makes it a versatile ingredient. It is often used to make vinaigrette dressings, mustards, or marinades, as a condiment for seafood, or to...

Acid and Alkali Load

There is surprisingly little information on the direct contributions of individual foods to the acid burden. However, this source of dietary acid is of increasing importance in view of current popular weight reduction diets (e.g., the Atkins diet). The major acids contained in food are citric acid (in fruit, fruit juices), acetic acid (as a preservative, pickles, vinegar), lactic acid (yogurt, fermented foods), malic acid (fruit), oxalic acid (vegetables that contain smaller amounts of citric and malic acids), and tartaric acid (wine). Oxalic acid precipitates in the gut to form calcium salts, which are excreted in the stool and little is absorbed. The other acids are absorbed but quickly metabolized and present an acid burden in the form of CO2. The largest source of fixed acid comes from the metabolism of amino acids (particularly those from animal proteins - see above). The significance of this source of acid is readily demonstrated in patients consuming a high-protein diet...


Since antiquity grapes have played an important role in the European diet. They were eaten fresh, especially in the grape-growing areas, added to dishes dried or in the form of grape juice, or they were made into wine, the drink of choice for anybody who could afford it. The wild grapevine, a climbing plant like the later cultivars, was indigenous to the area between the Black Sea and Afghanistan. The Phoenicians introduced the vine to Greece sometime after 1000 b.c. from there it spread throughout the Mediterranean. The ancient Egyptians grew grapes, as did the Romans, who were especially fond of various grape syrups in their cuisine. Among them were defrutum, or boiled-down unfermented grape juice, passum, a cooking wine that was even sweeter, and mulsum, a mixture of white wine and honey. As the Roman Empire expanded across Europe, so did the cultivation of grapes, and the art of wine making. In the Middle Ages, great quantities of wine were produced, traded, and consumed in...


Also referred to as agrestum or agraz in the medieval cookbooks, verjuice was the tart juice of crab apples, unripe grapes, or other unripe fruit that was frequently added to medieval dishes. Classified as extremely cold and moderately dry by physicians, verjuice was used in much the same way as vinegar, especially in cooling sauces that were designed to counteract the heat of roasted meat. Produced commercially and for individual use when the fruits were in season, verjuice was normally kept for a whole year.

Sorbitol Xylitol

D-Sorbitol, a sugar alcohol, the reduction product of D-fructose, occurs extensively in fruits, e.g., in apples, cherries, pears, plums, but is not contained (or only in traces) in grapes, grape juice and wine. (A remarkable content of D-sorbitol in grape wine, grape juice and vinegar from wine indicates the addition of the prohibited use of apples or apples products in production.) The concentration of D-sorbitol may be used for the calculation of the apple juice content of beverages declared as 'contains apple juice'.

Dont Douche

Douching seems to have fallen out of popularity in recent decades, and it's just as well. Douching with homemade mixtures such as vinegar or baking soda and water can change the pH balance inside your vagina. The same is true for commercially prepared over-the-counter douches. Because of the change in your vagina's pH balance, any sperm that is present may be damaged or killed. Douching can also wash away your natural cervical mucus, which is present to help sperm through the cervix on their way to the egg.

The Miracle Of Vinegar

The Miracle Of Vinegar

You may be forgiven for thinking that these passed down secrets had gone for good, washed away with time and the modern age, But they're not. You can now own three of the best traditional did you know style reports that were much loved by our parents and grandparents. And they were pretty smart too because not only will these reports save you time and money but they'll also help you eliminate some of the scourges of modern day living such as harmful chemical usage in the home.

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