Subject Index

ACCME, see Accreditation Council for

Continuing Medical Education Accreditation Council for Continuing

Medical Education (ACCME) 23 achalasia 78

adaptive workflow engine 60 adrenalectomy

- operating room set up 82

- robotic-assisted 80 Akamai platform 24 albumin synthesis 143 alerting system 68 allogeneic graft 140 anesthesia 7 anesthesiology 38 angiogenesis 146 antisepsis 7 antitelomerase 14 apligraf 136 artificial graft 140 artificial organ 14, 156, 158 artificial prosthesis 133

automated monitoring 59, 64, see also monitoring autopilot 58, 60

ball trocar 102 bariatric surgery 75 Barrett's esophagus 85 basal metabolic rate (BMI) 77 basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) 140 bench model 37 biliary pancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS)

- robotic-assisted 77 biodegradable polymer 135 BioIntelligence Age 12, 13 biomaterial 146

biosurgery 159, 160 bipolar cautery 128 bipolar vessel sealers (BVSs) 107 BMI, see basal metabolic arte bone formation 138 bone grafting 137 botulinum toxin injection 78 brain-machine interface system 159 bronchoscopy simulator 38, 45 bupivacaine 126

business process management (BPM) 70

CAD, see computer-animated design cancer detection program 96

carbon dioxide 128

cardiac rhythm management 96

carotid angiography 30

carticel 136

cartilage 136

chest tube trainer 37

cholecystectomy 155

- robotic-assisted 75

- solo surgery 102

clinical assessment laboratory 40 CME, see continuing medical education colectomy 116, 118, 155 colorectal carcinoma 115, 116 colorectal metastasis 118 colorectal surgery 80 commercialization 12 common bile duct (CBD) injury 75 communication

- human-to-human 57 complex adaptive system 60 computer-animated design (CAD) 51 computer-based simulation 27, 29 computer control room 42 computerized feedback loop 70 computerized tomography (CT) 7

computer laboratory 42

computer technology 4

confocal fluorescence microscopy 94

confocal laser scanning microscopy 93

congenital cardiac defect 141

continuing medical education (CME) 19, 23

CT, see computerized tomography curriculum 158

curved window grasper 100

Cuschieri's model of proficiency 50

cybermedicine 19

data collection 63, 66

- automated 60

da Vinci system 77, 80, 124 dermagraft 136

diagnostic peritoneal lavage simulator 45 digital manometer 109 disruptive technology 9, 15 dissecting forceps 107, 108

- hemostatic 111 diverticulum 79 documentation 41 donor nephrectomy 81

- robotic-assisted 125 Dor fundoplication 78, 79 drug therapy 133 dysphagia 79 dysplasia 79

e-learning 24 e-training 24

E2 self-propelling endoscope 95 EAES 49

educational curriculum 158 electrocautery 111, 125 electromagnetic tracking system 30 electronic health record (EHR) system 58 electrophotography by xerography 9 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) 81 end-to-end anastomosis (EEA) stapler 159 EndoCinch 85 endofreeze system 102, 103 endonasal surgery 38 endoscopic instruments 99 endoscopic mucosal resection 85 endoscopic surgery 99

- blood loss 106

- robotic systems 101

endoscopy

- gastrointestinal 38

- virtual simulator 38 Epicel 135

epidermal autograft 135 epinephrine 126

epiphrenic diverticulum resection 79 epithelium organoid unit 139 ERBE 103 esophagectomy 79 esophagus

- fundoplication 101

- leiomyoma 79

- mucosa 78

European Liver Transplant Registry 126 evidence-based medicine 59 evidence-based surgery 156 evidence-based validation 47 expert's opinions 22

extracardiac Fontan operation (ECFO) 141 extrahepatic disease 117

flexible trocar 99, 100 flight simulation 37 floating ball 127

fluorescence laser scanning microscopy 93, 94 forceps 107

FTRD, see full-thickness resection device full-thickness resection device (FTRD) 105

gallbladder carcinoma 118 gastric

- surgery 80 gastric banding

- robotic-assisted 77 gastric bypass 76 gastric cancer 80 gastroepiploic arteries 109 gastroesophageal reflux 85 gastrointestinal endoscopy 38 gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) 115 gastrojejunostomy 77

- robotic-assisted 76 genetic engineering 13

GIST, see gastrointestinal stromal tumor glycosaminoglycan 137

hand-sewn anastomosis 76, 77 harmonic scalpel 128 health care

- quality improvement 58

- workflow 60 Heller myotomy 78 hemicolectomy 80 hemostasis 125, 127 hemostatic dissecting forceps 111 hepatectomy 118, 123, 128 hepatic vein 114 hepatocarcinoma 113 hepatocellular carcinoma 127 hepatocyte

- transplantation 143 high-fidelity simulator 31 high-risk training situation 31 human

- clone 13

- longevity 14

Human Genome Project 144 hyperbilirubinemia 143 hypothalamus 15

iatrogenic pathology 47 ileocoloanastomosis 118 immunosuppression 123, 133, 134, 158 implantable blood pressure measurement 95 inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) 109 Information Age 11 information system

- anesthesiology 58

- surgical 58

information technology 4, 19, 57, 157

inguinal hernia 102

instrument for laparoscopic surgery

- curved instruments 99 instruments

- combination for endoscopic surgery 103

- endoscopic procedure 103

- straight instrument 100

- TEM 105 insulin 133

intelligent computer 13

interface engine 67

Internet 19

interoperability 70

intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma 118

irinotecan 117

jet-cutter 127, see also water-jet dissector joint movement 124

kidney transplant 123

laparoscopic cholecystectomy 29, 103 laser photocoagulation 117 LASIK surgery 160 learning curve 35, 50 learning environment 36

- a state-of-the-art 39 learning process 48 leiomyoma

- esophageal 79 liquid-plus-gas 127 liver

- metastasis 115

- metastatic tumor 115

- parenchyma 118, 127

- regeneration 143

- resectable colorectal metastasis 117

- resection 119

- support 143

- surgery 127

- transplantation 123, 126

- vasculature 145 liver surgery 127

living-donor liver transplantation 123, 126 living-donor nephrectomy

- robotic technology 123 living-liver donor hepatectomy 128 living kidney donation 81 lobectomy 118

lower esophageal sphincter (LES) 78 M

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 7 manometry experiment 110 medical encounter record (MER) 63

- information 67 medical error 47, 59 medical website

- quality 20

MEMS, see microelectromechanical system mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) 138

operating room (OR) 35, 43

- automated 65

- control room 43

- interdisciplinary team 156 optical bilirubin analyzer 92 OR, see operating room organ transplantation 123, 158 orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) 115 otolaryngology 38

oxaliplatin 117

metrics 49

microelectromechanical system (MEMS) 89, 160

microrobot 51

microscanner 94

microsurgery 124

microsystem 160

microsystems technology (MST) 89

- endoscopy 95

- extracorporeal MST-enhanced device 92

- implantable MST device 93

- intracorporeal MST-enhanced device 92

- spectrometer 92 microtechnology 89

minimally invasive surgery (MIS) 47, 51 MIS, see minimally invasive surgery MIST-VR 27, 38

- software 28 model of Rasmussen 48 molybdenum 108 monitoring 41, 42, 63 monopolar electrical cautery 128 monopolar electrocautery 111

MRI, see magnetic resonance imaging MSC, see mesenchymal stem cell MST, see microsystems technology

- spectrometer 92 multiaccess surgery 156 multimedia 20, 48

- education 21

- learning 21

multimodality curriculum 35 myotomy 79

nanoscale system 160 nanotechnology 89

National Capital Area Medical Simulation

Center (NCAMSC) 39 Natural polymers 135 needle holder 99, 100 nephrectomy - operating room 82 NET, see neuroendocrine tumors netMED global survey 91 neuroendocrine tumors (NET) 115 Nissen fundoplication 78, 85

Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) 36 OLT, see orthotopic liver transplant on-the-job training 36

pain management 65 pancreatic

- surgery 80

pancreaticoduodenectomy 80 parenchymal transection 126 part-task trainer 37 pattern recognition 9 PDA, see personal data assistant peer review process 20, 24 PEI, see percutaneous ethanol injection percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) 115 perioperative environment 57 perioperative systems design 63 Perioperative Systems Process Acceleration Tool (PSPAT) 63, 66

- software architecture 68 personal data assistant (PDA) 22 personal digital assistants (PDAs) 157 picture archiving system (PACS) 67 piston pump 127

Plicator device 85 pneumoperitoneum 124, 125, 128 poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) sheet 136 poly-4-hydroxybutyric acid (P4HB) 141 polycaprolactone-polylactide copolymer (PCLA) 141 polyglycolic acid (PGA) 136 polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) 141 polylactic acid (PLA) 136 polymer 135

- template 136 polymer microsensor 93 polyurethane sheet 135 postsurgical care 66 posttraining skills 32 proficiency-based training 157 prostheses 14

PSPAT, see Perioperative Systems Acceleration Tool

- software architecture 68 psychometric test 29 PubMed 19

Pyrex wafer 144

quality measures 30

radiofrequencies (RFA)

- hepatic tumor 113 radiofrequency (RF) 159

- electrosurgical apparatus 117

radio frequency identification (RFID) 12, 60

radius surgical system 101

Rasmussen model 48, 49

RECIPE 61, 70

renal thrombosis 126

reporting system 68

return on investment (ROI) 61

RFA, see radiofrequency (RF)

robotic electrocautery 80

robotic interface 50

robotic system 60

robotic technology 75

robot technology 3

Roux-en-Y gastric 76

scaffold

- development 146

scaffold fabrication techniques 139 service-oriented architectures (SOAs) 63, 67 short bowel syndrome 139 silicon 144 simulation

- anesthesia 38

- computer-based 27

- curriculum 50

- development 28

- education 30

- high fidelity 31

- identification of errors 30

- medical education 44

- objective assessment 29

- quality 29

- technology 48, 155

- training 30

- training curriculum 31

- training program 28 simulator 4

skin graft 135

Small intestinal transplantation 139

stapler 127 stem cell biology 138 stem cell research 146 stress control 51 Stretta procedure 85 supervision 37 supervisory control 159 surgery

- bariatric 75

- colorectal 80

- communication 4

- endoluminal 85, 103

- endoscopic 99

- esophageal 76, 78

- gastric 80

- history of technology 7

- laparoscopic 3

- laparoscopic skills 37

- minimally 3

- minimally invasive 3, 4

- mucosa 78

- pancreatic 80

- robotics 3

- robotic system 158

- transvisceral 86 surgical education 157 surgical simulation 158 suspended animation 15 suture grasper 99, 100 synthetic polymer 135 syringe 109

Systems Acceleration Tool 63

TACE, see transarterial chemoembolization taxonomy 49

technical skills training 30, 31 technology

- ages of the development 12 telecommuting 39 telemedicine 69 telementoring 4 telemetric pacemaker 90 telerobotic surgery 126 telomerase 14

TEM-Erbe combination instrument 104 tissue engineering 133

- blood vessel substitutes 141

- cartilage 137

- cells 134

- cell transplantation 144

- clinical applications 146

- components 134

- gastrointestinal tract 140

- intestine 139

- liver 143

- phalanx 138

- skin 135

- small joint 138

- stomach 140

- trachea 137

- treatment of bone defects 137

- vascular graft 141

total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) 142

total educational 158

training

- curriculum 31

- proficiency-based 32

transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) 104 transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) 115 transhiatal esophagectomy

- robotic-assisted 79 transplantation 158 transplantation surgery 133 transvisceral surgery 86 Turing test 37, 49

ultrasonically activated devices (USADs) 107

ultrasonic dissector 127

ultrasonic vibration 107, 110, 111

umbilicus 125

unexpected events 60

ureter 125

ureteroscopy 38

vascular anastomosis simulator 45

vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 140

vascularized autograft 137

video footage 21

videoscopic technology 85

video teleconference 39

virtual cell 156

virtual endoscopy simulator 38 virtual reality (VR) 27, 47

- laboratory 43

- training 36

- Turing test 37 virtual ureterscopy 38 VR, see virtual reality VR-simulated environment 37

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