History and Physical Examination

A. A preliminary diagnosis of urinary incontinence can be made on the basis of a history, physical examination and a few simple office and laboratory tests.

B. The medical history should assess diabetes, stroke, lumbar disc disease, chronic lung disease, fecal impaction and cognitive impairment. The obstetric and gynecologic history should include gravity; parity; the number of vaginal, instrument-assisted and cesarean deliveries; the time interval between deliveries; previous hysterectomy and/or vaginal or bladder surgery; pelvic radiotherapy; trauma; and estrogen status.

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