Increasing Your Vitality
Ideally, an attenuated organism would possess the ability to replicate vigorously and induce an immune response, while being completely devoid of virulent properties. Strains with hyperattenuation (reduced vitality) and substantial or unstable residual virulence are unacceptable for use as vaccines. A knowledge of the genetic basis of virulence allows us to target virulence determinants and to create strains lacking the genes required for pathogenicity. Another challenge in vaccine development arises when dealing with viruses that have a very high rate of antigenic drift, e.g. influenza. In this case, standardized tech
The injury caused by a missile depends upon its velocity and the amount of kinetic energy released by it. A high-velocity bullet may produce little surrounding damage if it passes only through soft tissues that do not obstruct it. However, if, for example, it strikes bone, its effect is like that of an explosion within the body, causing a shock wave that homogenizes and kills muscles, may cause endothelial damage in nearby blood vessels, and sends off splinters of bone that act like shrapnel. The bullet velocity carries particles of clothing into the tissues with attendant microorganisms. It is vitally important to explore and assiduously clean these wounds. Every visible particle of dirt and dead tissue must be removed. The vitality of muscle can be gauged by gently pinching it to see if it contracts and cutting it to see if bleeding occurs.
Different opinions concerning source and factors involved in positive cultures most often can be simplified in the practical setting. The existence of infection prior to death can be proved when postmortem bacteriologic cultures yield a single infectious pathogen (polymicrobial growth must be considered contamination in the majority of cases46), and a cellular response can be detected on microscopy in organ or tissue sections corresponding to the sampling site. This proof of antemortem infection ( proof of vitality ) is reflected by an inflammatory host response, such as inflammatory cells demarcating clusters of bacteria (Figure 3.1), neutrophils or
Instead of reveling in the full amplitude and unbuttoned possibilities of human existence, jurists bring to it a narrow and smothering perspective. Wanting to reduce everything down to a dry and bloodless endeavor, they resemble taxidermists rather than naturalists they want to capture and display legal wildlife in museums rather than marvel at its living color and glorious vitality. Under this tutelage, jurisprudence is less about awe and splendor and more about rigor and scrupulousness. Although they present their work in grand and confident terms, contemporary jurists are fearful and desperate - they are fearful that, if the activities of law and lawyers are not held in check, they will decline into a chaotic arbitrariness they are desperate because their efforts to establish such a checking device are increasingly less convincing. Rather than celebrate society's diversity and energy, they wish to leash and corral them. Accordingly in its efforts to rescue law and lawyers from...
In the atmosphere, spores are subject to UV radiation, and there can be 95 loss of vitality within 1-3 days (Kallio, 1973), but pigmented spores survive better than hyaline basidiospores (Burnett, 2003). Basidiospores are relatively small 5-10 p.m and it has been suggested that their movement in air can be compared to that of smoke particles. Schlesinger et al. (2006) reported an altered mycoflora on particles carried by dust storms from the Sahara compared to the airborne fungal flora on a clear day. Mims and Mims (2004) showed that dispersal of fungal spores were correlated with smoke particles carried over the Mexican gulf.
The PGWB index was developed as a measure of subjective well-being or distress 29 . This self-administered index contains 22 items, reflecting both positive and negative affect. These are divided into six dimensions anxiety (5), depressed mood (3), positive well-being (4), self-control (3), general health (3), and vitality (4). Each item is scored on a 6-category scale (0-5 or 1- 6). The dimension scores combine for a total score ranging from 0-110 or 22-132. The QOLRAD is a disease-specific QoL questionnaire designed to address the health concerns of people with GERD or dyspepsia 146 . The measure contains 25 items encompassing five domains of importance to patients emotional distress, sleep disturbance, eating and drinking issues, physical social functioning, and vitality. Each item is scored on a 7-point scale and domain scores are calculated by averaging the item scores in that domain. The SF-36 is a generic measure of perceived health status that incorporates behavioral...
Hospitalized electrocution victims can show evidence of myocardial ischemia and arrhythmias (139,141,145,147,149,152,158). Because of the onset of arrhythmia can be delayed, these patients are monitored for 24 h after admission, particularly when there is a history of heart disease, loss of consciousness at the scene, or apparent current flow through the heart (139,141,142,145,232,233). The heart can be normal at autopsy (181). Petechiae may be found in the myocardium, and larger hemorrhages have been described in the pericardium and endomyocardium (181). Petechiae on eyelids, conjunctiva, visceral pleura, and epicardium are a sign of vitality in an electrocution death (197,234). Their presence does not depend on voltage or current pathway (197). The development of petechiae may be a combination of venous congestion owing to cardiac
Normal high-energy, high-protein diet For many patients with COPD, advising small, frequent nutrient-dense meals, regular snacks, and food fortification using high-energy and -protein foods, such as milk, yoghurt, butter, and cream, may provide adequate nutritional support. Foods of low nutritional value, such as tea, squash, and clear soup, should be discouraged. For some patients who lack vitality, use of readily prepared microwave dinners with a rest prior to mealtime is helpful. A daily multivitamin and minerals supplement may be indicated.
Example 6 illustrates the behavior of sublethally damaged organisms in food. If, for instance, bacterial spores in a food are damaged sublethally by heat, then vegetative cells derived from such spores lack vitality and therefore are inhibited by fewer or lower hurdles. In some foods the
Fermentation problems may arise from numerous sources, including deficiencies in the fruit and processing (Fig. 1). Difficulties may arise from a combination of factors and a variety of sources. It is often the impact of two or more conditions that cause a problem of greater significance than would be predicted by a single parameter alone. Once yeast fermentative vigor and vitality have diminished, revitalization may be difficult, if not impossible. Thus, winemakers must approach each winemaking step with as complete an understanding as possible. The following is a review of practical issues influencing fermentation.
Efficacy and Mode of Action Studies Systems Biology Using Embryonic Stem Cell Based Screening Systems
GABA, acetylcholine, etc.) and voltage-dependent ion channels in neural cell culture models 72 . The precise control of these physiological responses is prerequisite for defining appropriate experimental windows for the subsequent molecular analysis or pharmacological profiling. For a replacement of animal models for neuroprotection, essentially a variety of cellular insults are performed (such as excitotoxic, ischemic or by oxidative or P-amyloid-related stress). Neuroprotective conditions are then monitored on the levels of molecular markers from differential protein analysis and functional read-outs. The simplest read-out is quantification of neuronal survival by functional vitality controls, fluorescent vital staining, or live cell staining. As shown in Figure 8.5, it follows correlational analysis of functional and molecular data, and the definition of physiological and or pharmacological toxic endpoints.
The choice of culture conditions is aimed first at sustaining the vitality of cells and, second, at achieving a certain a differentiation status representative of the in-vivo situation. Any change in culture conditions will potentially change the differentiation state as a result of adaptation of the living material to its environment. Thus, any change in culture conditions must be evaluated for its effect on the endpoints under study, as well as the overall differentiation status of the culture. It is important to recognize that cells cultured in vitro are rarely cultured under homeostatic conditions, and the frequency of changes of culture media will influence availability of nutrients and accumulation of metabolites, which will influence differentiation over the course of culture. vitality and sensitivity towards toxins
Postmenopausal women appear to have slightly more male characteristics than younger women, but there is no marked change in their behavior or lifestyle. Some elderly women are quite elegant and dignified. Men can exercise their roles as village leader (tokarevaga) or fully fledged chief (guyau) until they die, unlike the big men system of Papuan societies where these functions are related to vitality and performance.
Nevertheless, there is much to applaud in Mootz's account. In concentrating on the vitality and motility of law as a professional practice and social phenomenon, he gives cogent voice to the rejection of the scientific impulse to reduce law to a disciplined methodology of deductive application, the embrace of the give-and-take experience of the interpreter within a given historical and social situation, and the emphasis on the inter-penetration
The Yanomami image of the transformation of the initiant is the crab. A crab periodically sheds its old shell to continue a supposedly new life and thus represents recuperative vitality. The periodic regeneration of the crab, which sheds its shell, is metaphorically linked to the menstrual cycle of the adult woman. A girl's future husband has the option of participating in this ritual. If a man's desire to marry the girl is serious, he will also follow her diet and use the sticks to scratch his body and head, as he too will then actually feel the itch on his body and thus perform the shedding. Couples who have experienced this ritual jointly often seem to have long-lasting marriages (Herzog-Schr der, 2000).
Always check with your doctor before you begin any physical activity to make sure that it's safe for you to exercise during your pregnancy. Some questions have been raised about the effects of exercise on pregnant women, but there is no proof that gentle exercise has any negative effects. Studies have not shown any benefits for the baby, but exercise might help you feel better and maintain your weight. Exercise also helps prepare a woman for childbirth by strengthening the muscles and increasing vitality, and it will be much easier to get back into shape after the baby has been born. If you don't have any serious medical problems and you have an uncomplicated pregnancy, it is probably safe for you to do some exercising.
The Samburu are pastoralists living in semi-arid lands in north central Kenya. They subsist mainly on their herds of cattle, goats, sheep, and occasionally camels. For the Samburu, livestock are more than a form of wealth and a source of subsistence. Livestock constitute the cement of social relations, and a focal point of ritual acts and meanings. In recent decades a variety of factors have greatly reduced the vitality of the livestock economy, forcing most Samburu to supplement their subsistence with wage labor, commercial livestock trading, brewing, and, in higher-rainfall areas, farming. Nevertheless, almost all Samburu continue to have livestock, and life remains oriented around the herds.
Based on enhancing the body's inherent vitality and purity. Priessnitz believed that pure water could be used to flush out bodily impurities and stimulate the body's inherent tendencies toward health. Water-cure treatments emphasized drinking large amounts of water and applying water externally through baths, showers, or wrapping wet sheets around the body. Most American adherents of water cure advocated an eclectic approach to health based on the curative powers of fresh air, diet, sleep, exercise, and proper clothing. The philosophy of water cure also had a decidedly moral tone. As one anonymous American enthusiast put it, We regard Man, in his primitive and natural condition as the perfect work of God, and consider his present degenerated physical state as only the natural and inevitable result of thousands of years of debauchery and excess, of constant and wilful perversions of his better nature, and the simple penalty of outraged physical law, which is just and more severe than...
Countries whose populations have been ravaged by war and genocide have sometimes proscribed abortion in an effort to increase the birth rate. Strict abortion prohibition has had the additional, if only implicit, goal of reinforcing social roles. The cultural assumption that motherhood is the appropriate social role for women buttressed Joseph Stalin's 1936 abortion prohibitions, enacted to furnish the former Soviet Union with a new group of heroes (Sachdev). The belief that bearing children is women's natural destiny may lead some to assume that birth control and abortion are both immoral and unhealthful. After 1933, Adolf Hitler prohibited contraception and declared abortion a capital offense on the belief that birth control was unhealthful. On the other hand, abortion prohibitions adopted in Germany in 1943 aimed at the vitality of the German people and excluded from criminality abortions performed on racially undesirable women (Sachdev).
On decaying meat, but which occurred, in fact, as a result of flies' laying eggs on the meat). Across the centuries, theories of life have focused predominantly on the form of organization displayed, as compared to the other forms, such as the chemical bases (cf., electron-proton theory - the atomistic or reductive approach which states that everything about a living organism, both overt and covert, is nothing more than a grouping of electrons and protons in a dynamic structure). For example, according to Aristotle's theory, the soul is the form or formal cause of the organized body, the matter of which is the material cause of the living creature. Later, in the 10th through the 15th centuries, the Scholastic theory postulated a vital force or vitality principle cf., pneumatism theory, proposed by the early Greek physician Erasistra-tus (c. 310-250 B.C.), is the semi-mystical proposition that breathing is caused by a vital principle or holy spirit Erasistratus also asserted that the...
The Swiss-born psychiatrist psychoanalyst Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) first met Sigmund Freud in 1907 and was soon named Freud's successor ( my crown prince ) by Freud, but by 1914 Jung and Freud parted company - never to see one another again -essentially due to theoretical differences concerning the interpretation of psychoanalysis, the influence of determinism on personality (Freud asserted that personality was basically set or determined in the first few years of childhood Jung maintained that personality was more malleable and changeable in later life by future goals), and the concepts of libido (Freud stated that it was sexual energy, whereas Jung regarded it as a generalized life energy ) and unconscious (Freud stated that it was the prime source of motivation with oneway master control over one's conscious thoughts and behavior Jung partitioned it into the personal and collective unconscious where life's experiences are progressive and more flexibly selected and guided under...
The most radical paradigm being subscribed to by biogerontologists is arrested aging. Here the hope is to develop the ability to continously reverse the processes of aging as they occur in adults, in order to maintain vitality and function indefinitely (Fossel De Grey et al.). Some scientists envision that negligible senescence could be accomplished by finding ways of removing the damage inevitably caused by basic metabolic processes, and thereby attaining an indefinite postponement of aging. They expect that substantive progress toward this objective will be feasible by the second decade of the twenty-first century (De Grey et al.).
Moore (1982) discusses music and dance as expressions of religious worship, with specific reference to Cumina and Revival, two religious groups in Jamaica. He notes that to participants these art forms are vehicles for self expression and release of inner tensions . a psychic outpouring that restores vitality and refreshes the whole person (p. 299).
Course of attempting to gain as near as possible full control over the modern causes of death. Medical advancements in surgical techniques, nuclear medicine, medications, and the like do offer great promise for sustaining human life at a high level of vitality throughout the later years. Yet, if this advanced medicine is restricted to only those who can afford it, and if inequalities of health provision (Hertzman, 2001) are not addressed, then the general picture of health will not likely improve for a substantial number of humans. Beyond that, much of the world still must contend with childhood diarrhea, malaria, and infectious diseases. HIV AIDS has reached crisis levels in some countries, while outbreaks of the ebola virus and bubonic plague are distinct threats.
At the beginning of regular forest management and systematic forestry sciences the primary objective was sustainable timber production. The sustain-ability principle, originally conceived by von Carlowitz (1713), served both Hartig (1791, 1804) and von Cotta (1828) as the basis from which they proceeded to develop methods for the sustainable management of forest enterprises. The main focus at the time was the sustainable production of timber. Attention was also called to diversity, protective, and recreational functions, inter alia, by von Hagen (1867), but none of these elements were included in the rules and regulations on sustainable planning. There was a widespread belief that, in the wake of sustainable timber production, all other forest functions would be automatically fulfilled. It was not until Dieterich's forest-functions theory was publicized (1957) that forests began to be discussed as habitats and recreational areas, with functions such as the protection of climate, soil,...
Grazing systems serve to alter the distribution of grazing intensities over time and space. Reducing grazing pressure on plants when they are vegetative allows them greater opportunity to accumulate energy reserves and thus increase their vitality. Conversely, increasing grazing pressure on plants when they are vegetative affords them less opportunity to accumulate energy reserves and thus decreases their vitality. However, the nutritional value of perennial plants is greatest while they are vegetative. Hence, a grazing system must manage the tradeoff to achieve its maximum long-term benefit. A practical and effective grazing system is characterized by six princi-ples 2 1) It satisfies physiological requirements and is suited to life histories of primary forage species 2) it improves the vigor of desirable species that are low in vigor or maintains desirable species in more vigorous condition 3) it is adapted to existing soil conditions 4) it will promote high forage productivity 5)...
The road to vitality, purpose, and meaning is a journey consisting of choosing valued actions that are performed in the service of valued life ends. In ACT, the response to the life-limiting effects of FEAR is Choice is a core concept in ACT. It is an action taken with reasons, but not for reasons. It is a form of volun-teerism, or voting with one's feet. This is the resting potential of any client the ability to transcend learning, history, and logic and simply take an action that can produce vitality, meaning, and purpose. A variety of ACT exercises teach the client that willingness is both a chosen action and almost invariably involves making room for feared experiences. Choosing willingness is made more difficult when cognitive fusion is extreme and the sense of self as context is weak. Thus, willingness and choice generally become therapeutic foci when cognitive defusion and self-identification strategies have had some degree of success. In the sexual abuse example, the...
Nevertheless, contrary to the theoretical pronouncements of judges and jurists, common lawyers have been wise enough in practice to realize that those who only remember the past are destined to miss out on the future. The common law has retained its present vitality and future relevance by playing fast and loose with the past its practitioners have taken an anything might go approach to its operation and development. While its past has
Due to the unique feeding process, a pair of pigeons can have no more than two squabs at a time. In many cases one squab will become dominant, taking over the feeding or pushing its counterpart out of the nest, which could result in the death of the weaker squab. In captivity a pair of pigeons can produce up to 20 squabs per year, and modern breeding techniques have helped to increase the vitality of the weaker individuals and successfully bring most of them to market.
Dentoalveolar trauma is a very common reason for ED visits. Approximately 20 percent of all school-age children will experience oral trauma. The most common mechanism of injury is falls. Sporting injuries, fights, and motor vehicle collisions account for most of the remainder. Injury to the maxillary central incisors accounts for 70 percent of dental injuries.27 The management of dentoalveolar trauma depends on the extent of tooth and alveolar involvement, the degree of development of the apex of the tooth, and the age of the patient. In isolated fractures of a tooth, treatment decisions are based on the vitality of the tooth and, in a vital tooth, the proximity to the pulpal tissue. Involvement of the root of the tooth compromises the attachment apparatus and thus the ability of a dentist to adequately restore the tooth to function. Isolated alveolar bone trauma rarely occurs. tooth is maintaining pulpal vitality. The proximity of the fracture to the pulp and the length of time...
Phenomenologically oriented work emphasizes the relationship between the esthetics of the known body and healing. Desjarlais (1992a, 1992b, p. 1105) demonstrates how healing by Yolmo shamans is directly tied to the experiencing body and works to reinstate a visceral sense of harmony, completion, and vitality. Similarly, Roseman (1990, 1991) and Devisch (1993, 1996) trace embodied understandings of selves directly to healing practices, especially to dance forms, while Boddy (1988) finds that women regenerate sense of self and recontextualize experience through a diagnosis of possession and participation in curing rites such as trance. (Other phenomenological studies of healing include Briggs, 1996 Csordas, 1994b, 1996 Laderman & Roseman, 1996 McCallum, 1996.)
In the particular case of pursuing complementary oxidative and reductive nitrogen removal steps, design and control measures to secure the presence and vitality of nitrogen-oxidizing and nitrogen-reducing bacteria within biomass will determine whether nitrification and denitrification were able to occur. Given the low growth rates commonly maintained by nitrifying bacteria, the key to achieving nitrification within an activated sludge is that of retaining reactor biomass for periods (maintaining an SRT) in excess of 4 days (and perhaps as much as 8 to 10 days during cold-weather periods). At this point, a sufficient (albeit, even then rather small at levels of a few percent or lower of the total viable cells) inventory of these nitrifying lithotrophs can be kept to effect the desired oxidation of ammonia to nitrate.
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