Waste Stream Ebook

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money! Join the many individuals and families who are learning to prosper in the salvage and recycling business starting with little or no cash. You'll learn: How to bootstrap your business without going into debt. How to get your salvage for free or for pennies on the dollar. (In some cases you will be paid to take the material away). How to find the best price in the least amount of time. The tools and equipment you will need many easily fabricated. Information based on my experience in salvage, recycle and reuse in the following areas: Construction and building materials. Deconstruction and recycled lumber. Farm and ranch equipment and supplies. Heavy equipment salvaging for high value parts. Scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous. Electronic, communication, and computer scrap and recycling. Salvage for alternative energy systems. Antiques and collectibles. Promoting and marketing. Always treating everyone with fairness and respect and not profiting from the misfortune of others ways to create win-win situations for All parties involved. How to deal with scrap and recycling dealers and brokers. Innovative businesses you can start using various salvaged materials. How to arrange transportation, interim storage, cheap yard space without dealing with high cost commercial operators. How to be paid for your work before you ever start. How to get the equipment and tools you need. How to stay solvent and operate on a cash basis. Continue reading...

Home Based Recycling Business Summary


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Author: Michael R. Meuser
Official Website: recyclingsecrets.com
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Contaminated Solid Waste Streams Soils Sediments and Sludges

Waste recycling plays a key role in the development of a sustainable economy (Suzuki, 1992). The classical approach, remediation without the production of recycled materials, does not contribute to durable material flows. Moreover, the production of reusable materials is a necessity to make waste treatment an attractive economic solution. Recycling, however, cannot be done without regard to the effort and costs needed. The overall environmental benefits should be positive and fit within the local economic and legal framework. Solid waste streams (contaminated soils, sediments, and sludges) can be recycled. The solids have to be transformed into usable products while the contaminants are removed or destroyed. If the contaminants are organic (such as mineral oil, PAH, solvents, BTEX, PCB), the use of bioreactors can result in environmental benefits (Riser-Roberts, 1998). In bioreactors populations of soil organisms degrade the contaminants to yield carbon dioxide, water, and harmless...

Using plastic packaging in retort operations

The use of semi-rigid and flexible plastic packaging adds to the list of potential variables that influence achieved lethality. The interactions between product, package and process add still further to the list, making a thorough understanding of the situation even more necessary if sub-lethal processes are to be avoided. At one end of the scale is the potential to breach the heat seal and so induce leaks, by inappropriate differential pressure (both positive and negative differential pressure) whilst at the other is the need to achieve and maintain a predetermined container geometry to allow the movement of heating and cooling fluids around the outside of the container and to achieve expected heat transfer rates within the container. To further complicate the situation, variations in filled weight, headspace volume, headspace gas density, container volume, the physical behaviour of the container materials within the retort and other aspects of the pre-retort process and the package...

Solid waste treatment composting and landfill

We in the modern Western world are often described as living in a 'throwaway society'. On average, each of us generates around 2 tonnes of solid waste material per year, and all of this must be disposed of in some way Most of it ends up in landfill sites, huge holes in the ground where refuse is deposited to prevent it being a hazard. The non-biodegradable components (metals, plastics, rubble, etc.) remain there more or less indefinitely however, over a period of time biodegradable material (food waste, textiles, paper, etc.) undergoes a decomposition process. The rate at which this happens is dependent on the nature of the waste and the conditions of the landfill, but could take several decades. Aerobic processes give way to anaerobic ones and a significant result of the latter is the generation of methane. Modern landfill sites incorporate systems that remove this to prevent it being a fire explosion hazard, and may put it to good use as a fuel source. Many householders separate...

Solid Waste Treatment

Biodegradation of dead plant, animal, and other residues has played an important role on our planet's surface since the inception of life eons ago, recycling valuable nutrients back into our biosphere while negating or at least reducing the shear physical burden of this never-ending natural debris stream. At least in theory, therefore, nature provides a highly useful example of a means by which we might manage our own solid waste residuals, taking full advantage of much the same aerobic and anaerobic degradative mechanisms. The level of success presently realized in using biology effectively as a management process for human solid waste residuals has, however, considerable room for improvement. At the low end of this spectrum of biochemically engineered solid waste management strategies, the majority of municipal detritus generated by the world's current leader in per-capita solid waste production (i.e., the United States) follows a least-cost disposal Figure 16.56 Solid waste...

Pathophysiological Basis of Contrast Enhancement

Cancer can develop in any tissue of the body that contains cells capable of division (Ruddon 1987) The earliest detectable malignant lesions, referred to as cancer in situ, are often a few millimetres or less in diameter and at an early stage are commonly avascular. In avascular tumours cellular nutrition depends on diffusion of nutrients and waste materials and places a severe limitation on the size that such a tumour can achieve (Delorme and Knopp 1998). The maximum diameter of an avascular solid tumour is approximately 150-200 pm, and is governed effectively by the maximum diffusion distance of oxygen. Avascular tumours of this nature are not detectable by MRI (Knopp et al. 2001).

Selective Isolation as a Result of Sequential Biochemical Activity

The methane fermentation, which is frequently used to digest solid waste materials, involves the initial anaerobic formation of intermediate metabolic products such as etha-nol, and lower fatty acids such as acetic acid and butyric acid, by members of the genus Clostridium and various facultative anaerobes. These metabolic intermediates are then converted anaerobically to gaseous methane by methane bacteria with the result that the initial solid matter is converted to a gaseous product.

Fermentation and respiration

Anaerobic respiration is less efficient than aerobic respiration. Oxidation of the same amount of cofactor by methanogenesis rather than oxidative phospho-rylation would produce fewer moles of ATP. Consequently, for a given amount of ATP production, the flux of glucose through glycolysis followed by fermentation would have to be approximately 16 times greater than through glycolysis followed by oxidative phosphorylation, and the flux through methanogenesis is somewhat intermediate. It is the metabolic capability of the organism and the presence or absence of the appropriate inorganic electron acceptor which determines the fate of pyruvate on the grounds of energy considerations. On a practical basis this may explain why anaerobic processes, such as the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and municipal solid waste, are considerably less exothermic than their aerobic counterparts. For a given quantity of carbon source, an aerobic process will be able to extract in the order of 10 times...

Chemical Disinfecting Agents

Lister used phenol (carbolic acid) as a germicide in 1867. Although it is the parent compound of chemical disinfection, its use today is limited to substituted phenols, eg, the feis-phenols used in germicidal soaps. Both chlorine (in the form of hypochlorite) and phenol were used to deodorize waste materials in the early 1800s, before Pasteur established the germ theory of infection and putrefaction. The use of disinfectant chemicals began in clinical surroundings in the late nineteenth century. In 1908 the first large-scale use of chlorine (chloride of lime) in water purification started in Chicago, and its use for this purpose spread rapidly. Yet disinfectants were not readily accepted in food production until the 1940s, when hypochlorite treatment was permitted in the dairy industry as an alternative to steam sterilization. The range of antimicrobial chemical agents has been comprehensively reviewed (2).

Decomposition of Organic Carbon Compounds in Natural and Manmade Ecosystems

Biological degradation of recent biomass and of organic chemicals during solid waste or wastewater treatment proceeds either in the presence of molecular oxygen by respiration, under anoxic conditions by denitrification, or under anaerobic conditions by methanogenesis or sulfidogenesis. Respiration of soluble organic compounds or of extracellularly solubilized biopolymers such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, or lipids in activated sludge systems leads to the formation of carbon dioxide, water, and a significant amount of surplus sludge. Some ammonia and H2S may be formed during degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids or heterocyclic compounds. Oxygen must either be supplied by aeration or by injection of pure oxygen. The two process variant for oxygen supply differ mainly in their capacity for oxygen transfer and the stripping efficiency for carbon dioxide from respiration. Stripping of carbon dioxide is necessary to prevent a drop in pH and to remove heat energy. Respiration...

Simple biosubstitutions

Natural properties of the raw materials and the compression involved in their fabrication. In a number of trials of these materials, principally in Austria, where they originated, eco-walls have consistently been shown to provide significant improvements in the quality of living and working conditions. In addition, construction and demolition waste, consisting of concrete rubble, timber fragments, brick shards and the like, poses a considerable disposal problem for the industry, particularly with increasingly stringent environmental regulation and rising storage and landfill costs. Though various recycling initiatives and professional codes of practice have helped ease the situation, there is an obvious advantage in a relatively inexpensive, lightweight and sustainable material which is truly biodegradable. At present, the use of this technology has been limited to small-scale demonstrations, though wider uptake is currently being promoted through the European Union's Innovation Relay...

The Northern Adriatic Sea First Example of Monitoring Metal Pollution

Back in 1995, during an EU-sponsored summer course on Monitoring of environmental stress using modern techniques , we assessed pollution by means of analysing cellular and molecular markers of stress, using coelomocytes from sea urchins collected in the seawaters around Croatia, during the war. Some tracts of this coast had been previously designated as polluted areas, as a result of urban runoff and or industrial waste from a nearby fish cannery, and others as non-polluted (M ller et al. 1998 Schr der et al. 1999). Animals were collected from three sites (1) along the coast near Rovinj (Istria), known as the urban contaminated area , (2) in front of Ruder Boskovic Marine Station, the industrial contaminated site and (3) from the uncontaminated Limski Canal (north of Rovinj), the unpolluted controls . The first difference observed between polluted and non-polluted coelomo-cytes was found at the cellular level. In fact, in those samples obtained from sea urchins collected from polluted...

Principles Of Extraction

Extraction involves three separate operations (I) mixing the raw material and the solvent to bring them into intimate contact, (2) separating the two phases following contact, and (3) removing the solute from the solvent so that the solvent can be recycled. Often the economic viability of a process depends on the third step of removing the solute and reclaiming the solvent. In many cases the solvent is relatively expensive (eg, organic solvent) and good separation and recycling is imperative. When the solvent in leaching is water and because the solute is often a waste material, the solvent would not be recycled.

Cord Blood Transplantation And Banking

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from umbilical cord blood have been used to transplant more than 5000 recipients with various malignant or genetic disorders since the first transplant, performed in October 1988. This cord blood transplant successfully cured the disordered and fatal hematological manifestations of Fanconi anemia the male recipient of human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor cord blood cells from a female sibling is alive and well more than 17 years after the transplant. This and subsequent cord blood transplants using sibling cells were the result of extensive laboratory-based studies and the first proof-of-principle cord blood bank, established in the author's laboratory, that suggested the feasibility of such transplants with cells previously considered waste material except for some routine clinical testing needs. Since those initial clinical studies and banking efforts, numerous cord blood banks have been developed worldwide, allowing the extension of...

Legumebased Fermented Foods

(a) Tempe (Tempeh) Kedele This is a fermented soybean-based food, popular with American vegetarians and also available in Canada, the West Indies, Holland, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It is supplied in the form of a white, moldy cake. The beans are cleaned, soaked, dehulled, partially cooked, drained, inoculated, packed in banana leaves or perforated plastic bags, and incubated for 2 days to produce tempe. A variety of fungi have been isolated from Malaysian tempe including various species of Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium, and Rhizopus by Yeoh and Merican (1977). In tempe of other origins bacteria such as Bacillus and Micrococcus sp. may also be present (b) Tempelike foods from broad beans and cowpeas Rhizopus arrhizus is used in the production of tempe products from broad beans. R. oligosporus, R. oryzae, and R. arrhizus are used for tempe products from cowpeas. Different Rhizopus species give products with different aromas and flavors (Djurtoft and Jensen 1977) (c) Oncom (Ontjon) A...

Characteristics of Contaminated Solids

Disregarding the heterogeneous nature of the waste, the contaminant behavior is largely determined by the fines (Werther and Wilichowski, 1990), because submicron particles such as humic-clay structures and clay agglomerates have an extremely high adsorption capacity (Brady, 1984). The solid waste, therefore, basically contains a contaminated fine fraction, a less contaminated sand-gravel fraction, cleaner debris, and a contaminated water phase. In general one can state that, to develop an appropriate recycling technology, the particle features of the solids have to match the type of process operation. For bio-processing this implies integration of the separation technology and bioreactors in a sequence of operation in which the clean fractions are removed from the feed before entering the reactor (Kleijntjens et al., 1999).

Biological Waste Treatment

Broadly speaking, this effectively means the decomposition of the biowaste by microbes to produce a stable, bulk-reduced material, during which process the complex organic molecules originally present are converted into simpler chemicals. This makes them available for literal recycling in a wider biological context. The early successes of biowaste treatment have typically been achieved with the plant matter from domestic, commercial and municipal gardens, often called 'green' or 'yard' wastes. There are many reasons for this. The material is readily biodegradable, and often there is a legal obligation on the householder to dispose of it separately from the general domestic waste. In the UK alone, the production of this type of biowaste is estimated at around 5 million tonnes per annum (DETR 1999b), making this one area in which biological waste treatment can make very swift advances. Nowhere is the point better illustrated than in the USA, where the upsurge in yard waste processing...

Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation

We give the description of a typical SSF process that aims to recycle solid waste into ethanol, which functions as an alternative fuel. The solid utilized in this process is approximately two-thirds urban waste and one-third pulp mill waste. This solid mixture contains approximately 57 in cellulose. The waste is pretreated, sterilized, and then forwarded to three reactors of 2500 gal each. A culture of mutant fungus T. reesei is inoculated into each reactor. The fungus continuously produces a full complement of cellulases that degrade cellulose. The total residence time for each cellulase production strain is 48 h. Ninety percent of the cellulose introduced into the reactors is degraded into sugars, such as pentose, xylose, arabinose, and glucose. Subsequently, the degraded cellulose is cooled in a heat exchanger and sent into 12 reactors for fermentation into ethanol. In this system, one can shut down four reactors while continuing operating the remaining reactors in full swing. The...

Packaging And Waste Disposal

The disposal of postconsumer packaging has been a significant issue in the past two decades. The public concern about the disposal of food packaging heightened with the introduction of PET plastic beverage bottles because of their high visibility. The concern broadened to include the nonplastics, postconsumer packaging materials, and other materials destined for disposal through the traditional channels of landfill or incineration. There were numerous efforts by public and private groups to establish regulations for the control of packaging by such means as deposit laws, mandatory recycling, bans, and taxation. The federal government and various industrial groups began to develop a more rational strategy to address the packaging disposal concerns. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended a plan of integrated solid waste management, which consists of a prioritized strategy source reduction, recycling, incineration, and landfill. The strategy provides useful guidelines for...

Limitations And Potential

The economic threshold for commercial selection of a biological process to replace a physico-chemical process for heavy metal removal from a waste stream as assessed by Macaskie (1991) is that a metal-loading capacity greater than 15 of the biomass dry wt must be demonstrated. Before the selection of any technology, it is imperative to note the hierarchy of hazardous waste management options reduce reuse recycle. The option of last resort is to treat and dispose of the waste in safe landfills, while minimizing the resultant volume, since disposal sites are few and space is precious not to mention expensive. A given bioremediation technology should be able to perform on a large scale in order for it to be commercially viable. The organism or biomaterial selected to accomplish the goal of removing or altering a heavy metal or metal ion rendering it less toxic must be very efficient in performing its intended function. The literature is rich with reports of studies attesting to the...

Stage 4 Product launch and evaluation

The results of this were seen in the sales of 100 tonnes, all of the available product, in 1996. Confidence from this success led to the stepping up of production facilities and capacity towards 700 tonnes per annum at the first site, and the planning of expansions to 1000 tonnes annually. Financially, the returns were significant in lifting the value of standard whey protein concentrate from around NZ 4000 per tonne to around NZ 15,000 per tonne. Although the production costs were of course higher, and the development costs to this point were over NZ 1 million, the overall returns for the industry were very satisfactory from what, not too many years earlier, had been seen as almost a waste stream.

Conditions in a Packed Bed Bioreactor

Most degradation studies employing Phanerochaete have been carried out in solid cultures or in shallow liquid stationary or shake cultures (Ander and Eriksson 1977 Hatakka 1985). Packed-bed bioreactor configurations have been mainly used to study the ligninolytic enzymes and degradative abilities of P. chrysosporium (Lewandowski et al. 1990 Linko 1988). In view of this it was decided to examine the effect of the fungus on the industrial waste in a 2 l packed-bed reactor.

Animal Research Facilities

Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities

Light within habitats is usually regulated so as to provide a day night cycle similar to that on Earth. Air circulation and heating or cooling ensures that temperature and humidity are maintained at comfortable levels. Food is provided according to the needs of the species in question and the requirements of the experiments. Generally, a continuous water supply is available. Waste material, which includes not only excreta, but also particulate matter shed from the skin and debris generated during feeding activities, is eliminated using airflow systems engineered for the purpose (Souza et al. 2000). The CEBAS minimodule is able to house aquatic species in a large volume of water (8.6 liter), either in different compartments or as a community, in a closed ecological system. Homweed plants are used for oxygen production, a biofilter allows for water recycling, and fish and snails evolving freely in this environment can be used as experimental research subjects (Figure 3-17).

Advanced Systems Concepts Directorate

Ity foodservice to the Navy's antisubmarine warfare squadrons is the subject of another project wherein the current system cannot provide the flexibility required by air crews engaged in long surveillance and combat missions. Also for the Navy, ASCD is developing a new concept for disposal of plastic waste products. Under international treaty, by 1993 the Navy was to cease disposing of plastics at sea. With the large volume of plastic packaging generated by aircraft carriers, which are essentially floating cities containing over 5,000 individuals, and with industry's trend toward increasing use of plastics packaging material, this is a crucial project addressing a highly visible problem.

Utilization Of Fruit And Vegetable Processing Wastes Via Solidstate Fermentation

Mushroom production is one of the few large-scale commercial applications of microbial technology profitable for bioconversion of cellulosic waste materials to valuable foods (11). Apple pomace was found to be a good substrate for the cultivation of edible mushrooms. Various oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus species) were growing very well on apple pomace with a biological efficiency ranging between 30 and 40 (71). The biological efficiency was a measure Corn wastes were used as a substrate for citric acid production by A. niger with a maximum yield of 250 g kg dry matter of corn cobs after 72 h of growth at 30 C (92). Carob kibble, a waste material from carob pod fruit was also an attractive substrate for citric acid production by solid-state fermentation (93,94). Orange processing wastes were also used as a substrate to produce citric acid by A. niger (95). During citric acid fermentation, the presence of methanol was a critical factor in increasing citric acid yield, and this appears to...

Cell Culture Reactors

Preparation Callus Pic

Fermentation of cell cultures is difficult and technically complicated 11, 12 . Contrary to single cell micro-organisms, higher cells require an environment similar to the one found in living organized tissue for survival and growth as well as for their metabolism. Critical environmental factors are light, nutrients, respiratory gases, hormones and growth factors. Metabolism waste materials and the products of synthesis from primary and secondary metabolism pathways have to be removed from the fermentation broth. Additionally, absolute sterility of the media is mandatory, because isolated cell tissue is by far more sensitive to microbial contamination than natural organisms.

The Feed Manufacturing Industry

Many feeds used in feed manufacturing were once considered waste materials from the food industry that were disposed of in ways that would be considered environmentally unacceptable by today's standards. In 1947, it was noted Sixty years or more ago, the flour mills in Minneapolis dumped wheat bran into the river because nobody wanted to buy it (20). Feed mixing moved from the scoop shovel to a mechanized operation, and many companies entered the feed manufacturing business between 1895 and 1930. During this time, feeds were sold more for their mystical qualities than for demonstrated production and health responses in animals.

Safety Considerations

Another important food safety consideration is the potential for migration of harmful toxic chemicals from packaging materials in immediate contact with the fresh-cut produce into it. Commercial plastic packaging materials usually include nonplastic components that might migrate to contained foods. Thus, polymeric MAP materials must comply with all governmental regulations related to indirect food additives, and packaging suppliers must be able to certify such compliance (10).

Iodine Deficiency and Excess Iodine Deficiency

A number of other factors influence iodine balance. Active transport of iodide is competitively inhibited by several compounds, including complex ions such as perchlorate, and by thiocyanate, a metabolic product of several foods. Other compounds, such as propylthiouracil, affect coupling reactions and iodi-nation, doing so regardless of iodine intake, e.g., without blocking iodide transport. Several pharmaceuticals affect peripheral hormone action. Dietary goitrogens, as these compounds have been called, include cassava, lima beans, sweet potatoes, cabbage, and broccoli these contain cyanide compounds that are detoxified to thiocyanate, which may inhibit iodide transport. Cabbage and turnips, and other plants of the genus Brassica, also contain thionamide compounds which block iodination. Certain industrial waste products, such as resorcinol from coal processing, contain phenols that cause irreversible inhibition of TPO and block iodination. In some countries the staple diet includes...

Methods For Immobilization

Enhanced catalyst stability due to protection by the cell membrane and the local microenvironment, and the ability to catalyze multistep enzymatic reactions, particularly those using cofactors that are otherwise difficult to regenerate. Disadvantages include the following the possibility of side reactions and hence less pure products and both substrate and product must be small enough to pass through the gel particles. Currently, immobilized cells are used either to catalyze simple conversions such as iso-merization or as growing immobilized cells to produce primary metabolites, for example, amino acids. Immobilized living cells can also be used to detoxify waste materials, for example, to remove nitrates from drinking water and to remove phenols from industrial wastewater (4).

Marketplace Demands And Driving Forces

To meet the challenges presented by these driving forces, the packaging industry has made numerous technical innovations. Many innovations have come from the area of plastics packaging, because plastics are cost effective, lightweight, nonbreakable, heat sealable, micro-wavable, easily fabricated, and corrosion resistant. For example, significant advancements have been made in coextrusion, lamination, and coating technologies, which enable the design of plastic packaging materials with a wide range of properties (1). Another innovation is active packaging, including the technologies of modified atmosphere packaging for fresh produce, oxygen scavengers, time-temperature integrators, and antimicrobial films (2).

Attached Growth Systems

Compared with most other waste-processing strategies, trickling filters are fairly simple in design and operation, and as a result they still find considerable use (Water Environment Federation, 1991). While their overall effectiveness may be somewhat lower than that of other processing strategies (e.g., suspended-growth systems), the attached nature of these biofilms does provide several complementary benefits. Since the attached biofilm stays inside the reactor, there is less need to provide any sort of recycling process to return solids from the clarifier (as must be done in suspended-growth systems). Trickling filter systems also encounter fewer problems retaining their attached biomass during high-flow periods, whereas a suspended-growth reactor might overload the settler hydraulically, resulting in solids loss in the effluent. In many instances, and particularly in nitrifying The typical hardware components used with a conventional system (Figure 16.8) include a reactor filled...

Carbon in Environmental Engineering and Science

It traditionally has been the organic carbon (along with pathogens) that was of the greatest concern in water pollution (Section 15.2.7), leading to the construction of wastewater treatment plants (Chapter 16) that focus on its removal. Management of wastewater treatment sludges often has stabilization of the organic material as a major objective. (Stabilization involves conversion of readily degradable materials to those that change only slowly see later in this subsection). Municipal solid waste management also must stabilize the organic material (e.g., by incineration or composting), or else deal with the consequences (e.g., attraction of vermin, settling, and leachate and gas production during landfilling). Similarly, with soil and groundwater contamination, it is often organic carbon that is the target of remediation. Undesirable tastes and odors in drinking water, and the formation of cancer-causing compounds during disinfection, are traceable to organic compounds present in the...

Biological Applications For Environmental Control

Given that waste generation inevitably follows our consumption of commodities, we also depend heavily on controlled biology for yet another layer of applied benefits, as the biochemical basis for sustained environmental management. Indeed, we routinely rely on applied biology to cover both source and sink roles in closing out the grand mass balance of waste residuals within all environmental realms, from wastewater treatment to biosolids processing to solid waste degradation to soil, groundwater, and air contaminant remediation. Developing an appreciation for, and understanding of, the biological processes now used for treatment of contaminated air, water, soil or solid wastes involves the basic principles of biology that we discussed earlier. Basic biology, especially biochemistry, governs all the processes involved. Microbiology is critical, since microorganisms dominate these processes, but there are also processes that depend on higher plants and even trees to degrade various...

Sources of Contamination

However, there also are several other potential sources of water contamination. Water from activities such as bathing, showering, and toothbrushing, and from hand, dish, and clothes washing (often referred to as graywater, as opposed to the blackwater containing fecal material) may also contain pathogens, although typically in lower concentrations and of some different types. Urban and suburban stormwater contains fecal material and urine from pets and probably from rats, squirrels, and other wildlife. In some areas heavy concentrations of geese contribute large quantities of waste material. Agriculture may also be an important source of contamination directly from the animals being raised, or from the spreading of their manure this may enter water through treated or untreated discharges, stormwater, or irrigation return flows (the portion of the irrigation water that flows off the field and back to a surface water, mainly to prevent salt buildup). Even in pristine areas water may not...

Cell Physics

It is important to distinguish between the indirect and the direct effect of microgravity. Among the indirect effects are the absence of sedimentation and the loss of gravity-driven convection. The latter include density-driven phase separation (vinegar goes to bottom and oil goes to top), and thermal convection (heated liquids rise), which are caused by buoyancy. In normal gravity, thermal convection establishes a current that rapidly dissipates heat, renews nutrient supplies, and removes waste materials. This factor is most important when no fluid flow (like blood flow) exists to dissipate metabolic products and exchange nutrients around the cell. Without convection, slow diffusion processes are the only means for heat and nutrient exchange. This factor is likely to be most relevant in plants and single celled microorganisms such as bacteria that have no motile structures like cilia or flagella. Although


As a result of their wide-ranging physiological characteristics and the myriad of enzymes, antibiotics and other metabolites they elaborate, Bacillus species are important in a host of medical, agricultural, pharmaceutical or other industrial applications and processes. Among the better known antibiotics are bacitracin from B. licheniformis or B. subtilis, polymyxin from B. polymyxa and gramicidin from B. brevis. Several are important in antibiotic assays (B. pumilus, B. cereus, B. stearothermophilus) or other health-related assays, e.g. folic acid (B. coagulans), aflatoxin (B. megaterium) and hexachlo-rophene (B. subtilis). Certain Bacillus species are utilized for degradation of pollutants and waste materials. One strain of B. cereus is the active ingredient of an antidiarrheal formulation prescribed in certain countries of Europe. The spores of the thermophilic B. stearothermophilus are particularly well suited to checking heat sterilization procedures for laboratory, surgical,...

Cell Sorting

Ing opposite charges in the vicinity of 4-8 kV. Each droplet containing a desirable particle can be placed into one of several containers (shown is a four-way sorting system). In the center of the figure is a video image of the droplets strobed at the same frequency as droplet formation. (b) The pulses of three different lasers as a particle passes by each beam separated in space. Thus, a particle will pulse from each laser a few microseconds apart. This way, signals from each laser can be individually analyzed. (c) An alternative sorting system using a mechanical fluid-switching technique. In this system the waste stream is blocked momentarily to allow a desired cell to pass into the sorting pathway.

Costs and benefits

Despite these costs, scientists persist in the study of the deep sea, and their research provides a variety benefits for society. For example, research on hydrothermal-vent animals led to the discovery of DNA polymerases that work at high temperatures, which are crucial tools in pure and applied molecular biology. Safe repositories for human waste, such as dredge spoils, sewage sludge, industrial waste, and radioactive materials, are needed. Ongoing ecological work will help determine whether wastes dumped in the deep sea make their way back into contact with humans, and the effects of these wastes on the functioning of natural ecosystems in the ocean (Van Dover et al., 1992). The deep-sea floor contains mineral resources for example, economically important amounts of cobalt and nickel occur in manganese nodules. The work of deep-sea ecologists is helping to determine the environmental consequences of deep-ocean mining (Ozturgut et al., 1981). More generally, the deep-sea benthos...

Confined Space

Matter, release of hydrogen sulfide during removal of putrefied organic material and industrial waste 558,561,572,573 ). Some gases that displace O2 (e.g., propane) have CNS depressant effects at high atmospheric concentrations and lead to cardiac arrest (311). Mechanical hazards (e.g., machinery), adverse thermal conditions (hypothermia, hyperthermia), and falling objects pose additional threats in confined spaces (558,563). Workers trapped in cave-ins can be covered and suffocated (see Subheading 3.8.1. and ref. 574). Cases of children trapped in refrigerators has been described (48,114,116).

Future Trends

Emerging reverse osmosis applications in the food industry are reported to be in dairy processing, sweetener concentration, in juice and beverage processing, production of low-alcohol beer and wine, and waste stream processing 35 . For ultrafiltration, the prospect of future applications in the food industry is excellent according to Eykamp 36 , who states that many applications in broad food areas are based on the ability to change protein and starch sugar, salt and water ratios. Longer term prospects include refining of oils. Applications will be widespread and increase with technical progress and customers' acceptance. Future applications for microfiltration appear also to be excellent 37 . Many applications in broad food areas are based on the ability of microfiltration to retain micro-organisms without affecting desirable properties. Applications are predicted to be large, but the growth rate slow.

Process Analysis

From waste materials water (liquid and vapor), organic volatiles, and particulate solids. Oil in the reactor vat is replenished to make up for losses incurred by adsorption and absorption by the food. Oil is also filtered (cleaned) to remove particulates, some oil degradation chemicals, and interaction by-products formed between oil and food degradation products such as emulsified water. Oil filtration and or treatment materials are discarded from the oil cleaning and or filtering apparatus, and the oil is recycled into the fryer until the oil is out of specification for food manufacture it is then discarded from the process. The process reactor when drained of oil also requires cleaning and sanitation to prevent fouling and to provide a contaminant-free process environment this step also generates a waste stream of chemicals, particulates, and water. Process monitoring and control involve thermal and other measurements of the reactor's input and output streams, sampling oil and food...

Sludge Disposal

Forms of solid waste, a proportion have been consigned to either landfill or incineration. For some treated sludges, especially those derived from domestic sewage or food residuals, agricultural use has been an option, often requiring additional treatments to ensure its freedom from human pathogens, before land spreading or injection beneath the surface. The effectiveness of microbes in metal sequestration means, inevitably, that most treated sludges have a degree of heavy metal contamination, which itself makes possible the accumulation of these contaminants in soils exposed to these products. In addition, there are increasingly stringent controls on the release of nitrogen to the environment, particularly within escalating European Union legislation regarding nitrogen vulnerable zones. It would seem, then, that the future land use of 'spent' sludges is likely to be somewhat more heavily regulated than previously.


In a practical application, this can be a major consideration as the kinds of biowaste to be composted can vary greatly, particularly when derived from municipal solid waste, since seasonal variation, local conditions and climate may produce a highly heterogeneous material. On the other hand, biowastes from food processing or horticulture can be remarkably consistent and homogeneous. Accordingly, the details of breakdown may be very complex, involving a number of intermediary compounds and different organisms utilising various biological pathways. However, in broad terms, the composting process can be split into the following four distinct general phases, which are chiefly defined by their temperature characteristics.

Residues in Foods

Through exposure from air, water, or land, a food supply may be contaminated with certain residues, which may eventually be consumed by humans. Some contaminations may be residues of compounds purposely used to protect crops from insects (insecticides) or destroy competing plants (herbicides). Other contaminations may be from industrial waste or pollution, by accident, ignorance, or recklessness. Some contaminations may be naturally found in the food supply, such as those derived from the soil as food plants are grown, e.g., some heavy metals. Residues or contaminants found in foods differ widely in chemical structure, but all possess toxic properties that may be a threat to human health. Some of these chemicals tend to accumulate in the food supply, being more toxic in higher-order mammals than in species of lower phylogenetic orders. For example, fish and crustaceans can tolerate much higher tissue levels of arsenic and mercury than can humans.

Anaerobic Digestion

Controlled release of methane-rich biogas, which offers the potential for a very real form of energy from waste. This technology is viewed in certain circles as rather novel, but this is not really the case. It has been used in the water industry for around a hundred years to treat sewage and, more recently, been successfully applied to the processing of agricultural and household wastes, most notably in Germany and the Netherlands. However, waste management tends to be a naturally cautious field and the relative lack of a proven track record with MSW-derived biowaste compared to composting has made the uptake of this approach slow.


Just as insurers fear potentially large liability claims in cases involving hazardous-waste substances, so do members of the public. For example, in 1987 when the U.S. Congress chose Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the likely site for the world's first permanent facility for high-level nuclear waste, local residents and the state asked for unlimited, strict-liability coverage for any nuclear-waste accident or incident. The U.S. Department of Energy's response to the citizens, based on the 1957 Price-Anderson Act, was that the government would allow the waste facility to bear only limited liability. Consequently, the U.S. nuclear program, including radioactive-waste management, has operated under a government-imposed limit for liability coverage. This limit, designed to protect the nuclear-waste industry from bankruptcy caused by accidents, is less than 3 percent of the government-calculated costs of the April 1986 Chernobyl nuclear catastrophe, and Chernobyl was not a worst-case accident...


Perhaps the biggest problem facing the developed world at the start of the twenty first century is that of pollution of the environment. Our dependence on the products of the chemical industries has resulted in the production of vast amounts of toxic waste material. One way of dealing with such (mostly organic) waste is to encourage the growth of bacteria and fungi that are able to oxidise the pollutants, a process known as bioremediation. Elsewhere in this book we have seen how microorganisms are able to utilise an enormous range of organic compounds as carbon sources the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia cepacia can use over 100 such compounds. Many organisms can metabolise not only naturally occurring substances, but also synthetic ones, making them valuable allies in the process of bioremediation. Often the most effective microorganisms to use are those found living naturally at the contaminated site, since they have demonstrated the ability to survive the toxic effects of the...


Finally, the blooming of starfish and sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata,is a serious obstacle to fishery and the only countermeasure against it is their extirpation. The 2000 annual catch of starfish in Hokkaido, Japan, was reported to be 16,000 t. The disposal of extirpated animals is a serious problem for the fishery sectors. Exploitation of chemicals from these animals would be beneficial regarding both disposal of industrial waste and production of useful substances.

Upstream Processing

Technical media are used on an industrial scale and are cheaper. Normally, but not necessarily, complex substrates are the main components. Culture medium formulated for the extracellular production of a hybrid 6-1,3-glucanase from Bacillus using a recombinant Escherichia coli contained lactose, yeast extract, and sodium chloride, and fermentation was carried out in shake flasks and a stirred tank bioreactor (80). The substrate sources can also be derived from industrial waste, and are often highly impure mixtures, requiring pretreatment before they could be used for a fermentation process. Examples are soy meal, whey, fishmeal, malt extract, and sulfite waste liquor. Wastewater from monosodium glutamate production, which contains high levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulphate, and ammoniacal nitrogen at a low pH, has been used as the nitrogen and water source, with sugar beet pulp as the carbon source, for the production of pectinase by solid-state fermentation using...

Sludge Treatment

Wastewater treatment systems are designed to remove contaminants from the influent waste stream, thereby producing a clean liquid effluent as well as a concentrated, semisolid residual that contains the extracted contaminants plus newly generated biological cells. Rather understandably, the latter concentrated residuals, particularly those in raw form, can have a rather unpleasant, if not altogether foul nature if not handled and managed properly. In fact, one of the most worrisome aspects of these sludge residuals, in terms of human health, is that of their potential contamination with a wide range of pathogenic, disease-causing organisms, ranging from viruses and bacteria and extending upward in scale to protozoans, as shown in Table 16.9.

Aerobic Digestion

Whether collected within wastewater treatment plants, solid waste landfills, or simply on a forest floor, organic solids will naturally degrade and decay under aerobic conditions through the natural process of oxidative breakdown. The microbial cells found in raw sludge will therefore undergo much the same progressive sequence of cell lysis, release of cytoplasmic materials, and final oxidative conversion within an aerobic digester, whereby the organics released from lysed cells serve as a source of substrates for other living aerobic cells. The metabolic conversion of wastewater sludge through aerobic digestion, such as the unit depicted in Figure 16.47, subsequently converts an initially organic-rich sludge matrix into carbon dioxide and residual solids that include not only both inorganic and recalcitrant organic forms but also the remaining complement of meta-bolically active aerobic oxidizers. The resulting product has the advantage not only of

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