Water and Nutrient Transport

The vascular bundles consist of two types of conducting tissues, xylem and phloem. Xylem is the main water- and mineral-conducting tissue. It consists of columns of cells, some with perforations through the ends of each cell, through which materials move. At maturity the xylem cells lose their protoplasm, forming nonliving hollow tubes. Phloem is the food-conducting tissue that transports substances to and from the roots and leaves.

The vascular bundles consist of xylem and phloem, as well as other tissues. In dicot stems there is a layer of growing cells called the cambium layer between the xylem and phloem in each bundle. The cambium extends from one bundle to the next, forming a ring all the way around the stem. This narrow layer just below the bark of trees is the only

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