Weight Loss

Principal Mechanisms and Pathophysiology of Food Intolerance

The principal mechanisms resulting in food intolerance and the pathophysiology (where this is understood) are discussed below. The term 'allergy' implies a definite immunological mechanism. This could be antibody mediated, cell mediated, or due to circulating immune complexes. The clinical features of an allergic reaction include urticaria (nettle rash), angioedema, rhinitis (sneezing, nasal discharge, blocked nose), worsening of pre-existing atopic eczema, asthma (wheezing, coughing, tightness...

Can Boron Help Weight Loss

Manipulating the boron content of a diet leads to a wide number of metabolic responses, which is testament to the potential importance of boron in human nutrition. Early studies reported increased levels of steroid hormones, testosterone, and estra-diol in animals supplemented with boron. Further studies suggest that boron has a regulatory role in the metabolism of other minerals such as calcium and may affect bone metabolism. In a comparative way the role of boron is well established in...

Xanthophylls Lutein and Zeaxanthin

The structural isomers lutein and zeaxanthin are non-provitamin A carotenoids that are also measurable in human blood and tissues. Lutein and zea-xanthin have been identified as the xanthophylls that constitute the macular pigment of the human retina. The relative concentration of lutein to zeaxanthin in the macula is distinctive. Zeaxanthin is more centralized and lutein predominates towards the outer area of the macula. A putative xanthophyll-binding protein has also been described, which may...

Pathophysiology of Uncontrolled Diabetes

Pathophysiology Loss Weight

Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus occurs when circulating insulin levels are inadequate to lower elevated blood glucose concentrations. This condition includes a spectrum of metabolic abnormalities that range from the effects of mild insulin deficiency i.e., hyperglycemia to the effects of marked and prolonged insulinopenia i.e., ketoacidosis and fluid and electrolyte depletion . Diabetic ketoacidosis, which is the most severe acute manifestation of insulin deficiency, is almost entirely...

The National Weight Control Registry

The largest observational study of successful weight losers is the NWCR in the United States. The NWCR is a registry of individuals who have lost at least 13.6 kg and kept it off at least lyear. On average, these participants have lost more than 27.3 kg and kept it off more than 6 years. Information that registry members have provided has aided in learning about the weight loss maintenance process. Registry participants are recruited through newspaper and magazine articles and thus are a...

Nonprotein Nitrogen Compounds in Fish

Nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) compounds are found mostly in the fiber sarcoplasm and include free amino-acids, peptides, amines, amine oxides, guani-dine compounds, quaternary ammonium molecules, nucleotides, and urea (Table 6). NPN compounds account for a relatively high percentage of the total nitrogen in the muscles of some aquatic animals, 10-20 in teleosts, about 20 in crustaceans and molluscs, and 30-40 (and in special cases up to 50 ) in elasmobranchs. In contrast, NPN compounds in land...