Adp

TCA cycle net = 2 NADH = 6 ATP + net 2 ATP Figure 3 Glycolysis and its interactions with other metabolic pathways.

fuels and metabolites. The TCA cycle participates in gluconeogenesis from amino acids and lactate during fasting between meals and longer term in starvation. TCA cycle intermediates are the source of most of the nonessential amino acids, such as aspartate and glutamate. It is also involved in the conversion of carbohydrates to fat for storage after a carbohydrate-rich meal.

Pyruvate (3C) from glycolysis is oxidatively dec-arboxylated to acetyl-CoA (2C) in the mitochondria, catalyzed by the multienzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase and the coenzyme A (Co-ASH):

Pyruvate dehydrogenase requires several coenzymes derived from vitamins, including vitamin B1 or thia-mine, niacin (NAD), riboflavin (FAD), and pantothenic acid (a component of CoA). Deficiencies in any of these vitamins can affect energy metabolism, as

Pyruvate

-CoASH 'Pyruvate dehydrogenase

Fatty acids Ketone bodies

-CoASH 'Pyruvate dehydrogenase

Ketogenic amino acid

Ketogenic amino acid

NAD+

Oxaloacetate [4C]

Malate dehydrogenase

Citrate [6C]

NAD+

Malate dehydrogenase

Malate [4C]

\Aconitase Isocitrate

Malate [4C]

A Fumarase

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