Aging

ALA deficiency has been found in patients on long-term gastric tube-feeding that included large amounts of skim milk without ALA supplementation. These patients, who were in nursing homes,

Table 9 Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on several genes encoding enzyme proteins involved in cell growth, early gene expression, adhesion molecules, inflammation, ,3-oxidation, and growth factorsa

Function and gene Linoleic acid a-Linolenic acid Arachidonic acid Eicosapentaenoic acid Docosahexaenoic acid

Cell growth and early gene expression c-fos — — " # #

Adhesion molecules

Inflammation

3-oxidation

Acyl-CoA oxidased " " " " ""

Growth factors

aVCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule; IL, interleukin: PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor. # suppresses or decreases, " induces or increases.

^Monounsaturated fatty acids (MONOs) also suppress VCAM1 mRNA, but to a lesser degree than does DHA. AA also suppresses to a lesser extent than DHA.

cEicosapentachoic acid has no effect by itself but enhances the effect of docosahexachoic acid (DHA) dMONOs also induce acyl-CoA oxidase mRNA

Source: Modified from Simopoulos AP. The role of fatty acids in gene expression: Health implications. Ann Nutr Metab 1996, 40: 303-311. With permission.

Table 10 Adequate intake (AI) for adults

Fatty acid Grams/day % Energy

(2000 kcal diet)

Table 10 Adequate intake (AI) for adults

Fatty acid Grams/day % Energy

(2000 kcal diet)

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