Antioxidant and Biomarker Evidence from Intervention Studies in Humans

There are limited data from diet-controlled randomized crossover studies of humans on tea and other flavonoid-containing foods. Most intervention studies, apart from design considerations, suffer from lack of diet control, making them difficult to interpret. Results from intervention studies that employ dietary recalls, food records, and self-administered diets are notorious for introducing error that can mask treatment effects. Clinical studies in humans have focused on the antioxidant capacity of blood and oxidative damage to protein, lipid, and DNA as well as a number of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including lipids, hemostasis, platelet aggregation, endothelial function, and blood pressure. Interventions have included high- and low-flavonoid diets, tea, chocolate, cocoa, wine, grape extracts, and fruit juices.

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