In summary, several practices can be adopted to assist in the prevention of osteoporosis. From a nutritional standpoint an emphasis should be made on adequate intakes of calcium, vitamin D and a balanced diet that meets the requirements of other essential bone-related minerals and nutrients (detailed in Table 1). A healthy body weight should be achieved and maintained throughout the life cycle. Age-appropriate physical activity and exercise programs should be promoted to maintain fitness, muscle strength and weight bearing activities. Lifestyle habits that adversely impact bone health, including smoking and excessive alcohol intake, should be avoided. Individuals with risk factors known to increase the risk of low bone mass should discuss these concerns with their physician to identify the need for bone density screening. Appropriate screening will allow for the initiation of medical interventions to maintain or build existing bone mass and reduce the subsequent risk of fragility related fractures. Attention to bone health and adoption of bone healthy habits should be initiated during childhood and maintained throughout the lifecycle to promote lifelong attainment of skeletal health.
See also: Bone. Calcium. Copper. Magnesium. Phosphorus. Protein: Requirements and Role in Diet. Sodium: Physiology. Vitamin D: Rickets and Osteomalacia. Vitamin K. Zinc: Physiology.
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