Digestion of Protein Bound Biotin

The content of free biotin and protein-bound biotin in foods is variable, but the majority of biotin in meats and cereals appears to be protein-bound via an amide bond between biotin and lysine. Neither the mechanisms of intestinal hydrolysis of protein-bound biotin nor the determinants of bioavailability have been clearly delineated. Because this bond is not hydrolyzed by cellular proteases, release is likely mediated by a specific biotin—amide hydrolase (bio-tinidase, EC 3.5.1.12). Biotinidase mRNA is present in pancreas and, in lesser amounts, in intestinal mucosa. Biotinidase is also present in many other tissues, including heart, brain, liver, lung, skeletal muscle, kidney, plasma, and placenta. Biotinidase also likely plays a critical role in intracellular recycling of biotin by releasing biotin from intracellular proteins such as carboxylases during protein turnover.

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