Energy Adaptation during a Longitudinal Human Study of Weight Fluctuations

The existence and operation of this dual-control system for adaptive thermogenesis are consistent with the temporal changes of BMR and body composition during the unique longitudinal study of semistarva-tion, refeeding, and subsequent overfeeding in men participating in a Minnesota experiment. The pattern of changes in food intake and body weight, together with kinetics of altered thermogenesis (assessed as changes in BMR adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass and expressed as a percentage of baseline BMR value) are presented in Figure 5.

During the phase of weight loss, the operation of the two control systems for adaptive thermogenesis is suggested by the fact that reduction in thermogen-esis is biphasic in nature, with an initial rapid reduction in adjusted BMR at week 4, corresponding to 10% of baseline BMR, followed by a slower reduction in adjusted BMR, corresponding to 20 and 25% of baseline BMR at weeks 20 and 24, respectively. At the latter time points during starvation (at S20 and S24), the magnitude of reduced adjusted BMR was found to be associated with the reduction in fat mass (i.e., the greater the degree of depletion of the fat stores, the greater the suppression of thermogenesis).

Body weight (kg)

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