Energy Metabolism of Other Nutrients

The TCA cycle and pyruvate are central in the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the fed and fasting state. Pyruvate can have three main fates depending on the metabolic circumstances. It can be a substrate for gluconeogenesis, or it can undergo oxidative decarboxylation to acetyl-CoA and either enter the TCA cycle or be used for fatty acid synthesis.

Acetyl-CoA can be made from carbohydrates via pyruvate, from fatty acids via ^-oxidation in the mitochondrial matrix, or from the proteolysis of proteins to amino acids, some of which are converted to acetyl-CoA.

There are three main stores of metabolic fuels: triacylglycerols in adipose tissue, glycogen as a carbohydrate reserve in liver and muscle, and protein as a source of amino acids that can be oxidized via the TCA cycle or used as a substrate for gluconeogenesis.

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