Energy Requirements and Metabolic Adaptations

G R Goldberg, MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK

© 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The subject of energy metabolism in human pregnancy has received extensive consideration for more than 60 years, dating back to early work that assessed the contribution of fetal metabolism to the overall energy costs of pregnancy. Since then, the emphasis of much work has been on separating and quantifying the different components of gestational energy needs and on establishing appropriate recommendations for the energy requirements of pregnant women, with the intention to quantify average amounts. Deviations from average values were mostly regarded as undesirable biological or measurement noise that needed to be

Table 1 Protein and fat deposition during pregnancy for a reference womana



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