Examples of Food Fortification Programs in Developing Countries

Despite the multiple limitations that affect food fortification in the developing world, there are several examples that confirm its feasibility and benefits.

Vegetable Fats and Oil Fortified with Vitamin A and D

Addition of vitamin A to margarine and other vegetable fats started in 1918 in Denmark, when cases of xerophthalmia were associated with the replacement of butter by margarine. Then, the practice of nutritional equivalence, that is emulating the nutritional composition of butter, was adopted by the industry. Thus, vitamin A and D started to be added to margarine and other vegetable fats. Despite the fact that the bioavailability and utilization of vitamin A has been confirmed experimentally in the Philippines and other countries, the compliance and effectiveness of this practice at the national level has not been documented. Similarly, the addition of vitamin A in oil has been proven to be efficacious in

Table 5 Production cost of food fortification3

Food (price)

Sugar

Wheat flour (US$0.40/kg)

Salt

Fish/soy sauce (US$0.50/kg)

Nutrient Iodine

Iron

Vitamin A

aAt the levels of fortification indicated in Table 3. bFerrous fumarate.

Encapsulated ferrous sulfate.

dNaFeEDTA.

eAll cases, except oil, microencapsulated vitamin A.

Table 6 Characteristics of a suggested fortification formulation for white wheat floura

Nutrient Level (mg kg-1) Cost (US$ per Metric Ton) % Priced % EAR in 100 g consumption0

Table 6 Characteristics of a suggested fortification formulation for white wheat floura

Nutrient Level (mg kg-1) Cost (US$ per Metric Ton) % Priced % EAR in 100 g consumption0

Zinc

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