Bread score (slices x %WG)

Breakfast cereal FFQ (WG classified as 25% w/w)

serving per day Refined grains " mortality with " consumption HRR graded and inverse with " consumption

HRR # with " consumption

Jacobs et al. (1999) Is whole grain intake associated with reduced total and cause-specific death rates in older women? The Iowa Women's Health Study. American Journal of Public Health 89: 322-329.

Jacobs et al. (2001) Reduced mortality among whole grain bread eaters in men and women in the Norwegian County Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55: 137-143.

Liu et al. (2003) Is intake of breakfast cereals related to total and cause-specific mortality in men? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77: 594-599.

scores categories: 7% versus 10% for men and 2.7% versus 4.6% for women).

In the Physicians' Health Study, breakfast cereal consumption was used as an indicator of whole-grain intake in over 86 000 US male physicians aged 40-84 years studied over 5.5 years. Breakfast cereal consumption was assessed using a semiquantitative FFQ where men had to report the amount, frequency, brand, and type of cereal consumed over the previous year. Whole-grain cereals were classified as those with >25% whole grain or bran by weight; all others were considered to be refined grains. Whole-grain breakfast cereal consumption was inversely associated with total mortality independent of a range of dietary and lifestyle considerations.

The use of bread and cereal intakes as a measure of total whole-grain consumption is of some concern, as the extent to which they correlate with overall whole-grain consumption is uncertain. Indeed, such studies also fail to distinguish whether it is in fact something within the whole-grain package that is of benefit, or something else entirely.

4 Steps To Permanent Weight Loss

4 Steps To Permanent Weight Loss

I can't believe I'm actually writing the book that is going to help you achieve the level of health and fitness that you always dreamed of. Me, little scrawny sickly Darlene that was always last picked in gym class. There's power in a good story here so get this book now.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment