Further Reading

American Gastroenterological Association (2001) AGA technical review on parenteral nutrition. Gastroenterology 121: 970-1001.

American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Board of Directors and the Clinical Guidelines Task Force (2002) Guidelines for the use of parenteral and enteral nutrition in adult and pediatric patients. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 26(1 supplement): 1SA-138SA.

Flancbaum L, Choban PS, Sambucco S et al. (1999) Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and prediction equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69: 461-466.

Heyland DK, MacDonald S, Keefe L et al. (1998) Total parenteral nutrition in the critically ill patient: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association 280: 2013-2019.

Horattas MC, Trupiano J, Hopkins S et al. (2001) Changing concepts in long-term central venous access: Catheter selection and cost savings. American Journal of Infection Control 29(1): 32-40.

Klein CJ, Stanek GS, and Wiles CE (1998) Overfeeding macro-nutrients to critically ill adults: Metabolic complications. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 98: 795-805.

Klein S, Kinney J, Jeejeebhoy K et al. (1997) Nutrition support in clinical practice: Review of the published data and recommendations for future research directions. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 21: 133-157.

McCowen K, Friel C, Sternberg J et al. (2000) Hypocaloric total parenteral nutrition: Effectiveness in prevention of hypergly-cemia and infectious complications—A randomized clinical trial. Critical Care Medicine 28: 3606-3611.

Mirtallo JM (2001) Introduction to parenteral nutrition. In: Gottschlich MM (ed.) The Science and Practice of Nutrition Support: A Case-Based Core Curriculum. Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt.

Quigley EM, Marsch MN, Shaffer JL, and Markin RS (1993) Hepatobiliary complications of total parenteral nutrition. Gas-troenterology 104: 286-301.

Ranson JHC, Rifkin KM, Roses DF et al. (1974) Prognostic signs and the role of operative management in acute pancreatitis. Surgical Gynecology & Obstetrics 139: 69-81.

Rombeau JL and Caldwell MD (eds.) (2001) Parenteral Nutrition, 3rd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

Shikora SA, Martindale RG, and Schwitzberg SD (eds.) (2002) Nutritional Considerations in the Intensive Care Unit: Science, Rationale and Practice. Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt.

Solomon SM and Kirby DF (1990) The refeeding syndrome: A review. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 14: 90-97.

Souba W (1997) Nutritional support. New England Journal of Medicine 336: 41-48.

Task Force for the Revision of Safe Practices for Parenteral Nutrition (2004) Special report: Safe Practices for Parenteral Nutrition. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 28: S39-S70.

Veterans Affairs Total Parenteral Nutrition Cooperative Study Group (1991) Perioperative total parenteral nutrition in surgical patients. New England Journal of Medicine 325: 525-532.

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