Further Reading

Bender DA (1999) Optimum nutrition: Thiamin, biotin, and pantothenate. Proceedings of the Nutritional Society 58: 427-433.

Cronan JE Jr (2002) Interchangeable enzyme modules. Functional replacement of the essential linker of the biotinylated subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase with a linker from the lipoylated subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 277: 22520-22527.

Flume MZ (2001) Final report on the safety assessment of biotin. International Journal of Toxicology 20(supplement 4): 1-12.

McCormick DB (2001) Bioorganic mechanisms important to coenzyme functions. In: Rucker RB, Suttie JW, McCormick DB, and Machlin LJ (eds.) Handbook of Vitamins, 3rd edn, pp. 199-212. New York: Marcel Dekker.

McMahon RJ (2002) Biotin in metabolism and molecular biology. Annual Reviews in Nutrition 22: 221-239.

Mock DM (1992) Biotin in human milk: When, where, and in what form? In: Picciano MF and Lonnerdal B (eds.) Mechanisms Regulating Lactation and Infant Nutrient Utilization. New York: John Wiley.

National Research Council, Food and Nutrition Board, and Institute of Medicine (1998) Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin B-12, panto-thenic acid, biotin, and choline. In Recommended Dietary Allowances., pp. 374-389. Washington, DC. National Academy Press.

Pacheco-Alvarez D, Solorzano-Vargas RS, and Del Rio AL (2002) Biotin in metabolism and its relationship to human disease. Archives of Medical Research 33: 439-447.

Solbiati J, Chapman-Smith A, and Cronan JE Jr (2002) Stabilization of the biotinoyl domain of Escherichia coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase by interactions between the attached biotin and the protruding "thumb" structure. Journal of Biological Chemistry 277: 21604-21609.

Wolf B (2001) Disorders of biotin metabolism. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, and Valle D (eds.) The Metabolic and Molecular Basis of Inherited Disease, vol. 3, pp. 3151-3177. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Zempleni J and Mock DM (2001) Biotin. In: Song WO and Beecher GR (eds.) Modern Analytical Methodologies in Fat and Water-Soluble Vitamins, pp. 459-466. Baltimore: John Wiley.

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