The main substrate for glycolysis is glucose. Glyco-lysis does not require oxygen and is important for the direct production of ATP when oxygen is limiting (i.e., in rapidly contracting muscle). Glycolysis results in the splitting of glucose, a six-carbon (6C) compound, into two molecules of pyruvic acid (3C), which in the cytoplasmic solution becomes pyruvate (Figure 3). Pyruvate can enter the mitochondrion and be metabolized by oxidative decarboxylation to CO2, or if oxygen is unavailable it can be further metabolized to lactic acid resulting in the

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