Gssg

Chain-breaking

(Alos urate, SH-proteins, billirubin)

Ubiquinol a-lipoic acid Oestrogens

Figure 5 The integrated antioxidant defense system comprises both endogenous and dietary-derived antioxidants. GR, glutathione reductase (EC1.6.4.2); GSH, reduced glutathione; GSH-Px, glutathione peroxidase (EC1.11.1.9); GSSG, oxidized glutathione; GST, glutathione-S-transferase (EC 2.5.1.18); MSR, methionine sulfoxide reductase (EC1.8.4.5); NADPH and, NADP, are, respectively, the reduced and oxidized forms of the co-factor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid; S-AA, sulfur amino-acids; SH, sulfydryl; SOD, superoxide dismutase (EC1.15.1.1).

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