Thus, water vapour is isotopically depleted in 2H and 18O and carbon dioxide is relatively more enriched in 18O compared to liquid water.

If it is assumed that a constant proportion (x) of water losses is fractionated, carbon dioxide production rate becomes

This procedure is most frequently used for infants and young children, in whom values of x are assumed to be 0.15-0.20.

For adults, fractionated water losses (Ff) are often defined in terms of FCOz (Ff = 2.1FCOJ, in which case

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