aPercentages indicate the level of extraction in flour preparation. Source: Paul AA, Southgate DAT (1978) McCance & Widdowson's The composition of food, 4th edn. London: HMO.

and of course the volume consumed increase during the first 6 weeks of lactation.

Refined foods in general, such as fat, sugar, and alcohol, are poor sources of thiamin. Polished rice is particularly low in thiamin (80 mg/100 g) and is especially important because of its widespread consumption and importance as a source of calories. Cereal grains lose thiamin during refining, but the process of parboiling rice before milling enables most of the thiamin to be retained (190 mg/100 g) since it migrates into the starchy endosperm during the procedure. Proper storage of cereal grains is also important to maintain thiamin activity. Studies in The Gambia, West Africa, found that old season millet, which had been stored under thatch and in high humidity, when consumed in the middle of the rainy season had thiamin concentrations (11 mg/ 100 g) that were 6-12 times lower than cooked samples obtained immediately postharvest. Imported rice used in the village likewise only contained 10 mg/100 g at the time of consumption.

Because of the water-soluble properties of thiamin, it can be leached from food during cooking. Thiamin is stable in slightly acid water up to boiling point but is unstable in alkaline solution that oxidizes it



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