carbon dioxide

Figure 3 The monosaccharide products of sucrose digestion are metabolized to carbon dioxide and water via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. From Southgate D (1995) Digestion and metabolism of sugars. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62: 203S-211S.

liver to fructose-1-phosphate, which is spilt into two C3 products, glyceraldehyde and dihydroxacetone phosphate. The latter is an intermediate for both the glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. The glyceraldehyde is phosphorylated and recombines with dihydroxyacetone phosphate to produce fructose-diphosphate and ultimately glycogen. The major metabolic effect of fructose is to increase the production of pyruvate and lactate. This has the effect of depressing fatty acid oxidation and increasing the esterification and the synthesis of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). There is only a small rise in plasma glucose (and insulin) levels because gluconeogenesis is strongly inhibited. A rise in plasma lactate is seen after fructose consumption.

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