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glucose to be stored in large amounts without causing osmotic shifts. The terminal glucose molecules within this branching structure are accessible to the enzymes mediating glycogen breakdown to allow the rapid release of glucose in times of stress. The glycogen molecule expands in size after a carbohydrate-rich meal to approximately 40 nm in diameter and shrinks to 10 nm in diameter or less between meals. An adult male receiving a normal carbohydrate-containing diet has approximately 70 g of liver glycogen and 200 g of muscle glycogen. Glycogen is broken down by the enzyme phosphorylase. Glucose-6-phosphatase continues the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver. Muscle glycogen is metabolized by anaerobic glycolysis to form pyruvate and lactate. Lactate is then transported to the liver, where it acts as a precursor for gluconeogenesis. This is called the Cori cycle (Figure 3). The Cori cycle contributes to approximately 40% of the normal plasma

Glycogen

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