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Maintain serum calcium & phosphorus

Metabolic functions

Bone Neuromuscular health functions

Figure 5 A schematic representation of various factors that regulate the metabolism of vitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. (Copyright Michael F Holick (2004) Vitamin D: Importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79: 362-371, used with permission.)

controversial as to whether 1,25(OH)2D has any direct action on the renal handling of either calcium or phosphorus.

There are a variety of other tissues including the brain, gonads, pancreas, stomach, activated T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, and skin that have nuclear VDR. Although the exact physiologic function of 1,25(OH)2D's interaction with these VDRs is not well understood, it is known that in vivo and in vitro 1,25(OH)2D3 can inhibit proliferation and induce terminal differentiation of various normal and tumor cells including normal human keratinocytes. This is

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