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Values obtained from US Department of Agriculture nutrient database accessed at www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.

Values obtained from US Department of Agriculture nutrient database accessed at www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.

fruit juices, such as apple juice and white grape juice, are also used to sweeten beverages. The amount of fructose in fruit juices varies, as does its proportion with glucose, but clearly the use of concentrated apple juice provides more fructose relative to glucose (Table 1), compared to either sucrose or HFCS-55. Nevertheless, considering the variety of sweeteners commonly available, it is likely that fructose constitutes approximately 50% of energy from added sweeteners.

As a result of the addition of sweeteners and sugars to so many food products, the consumption of fructose has increased from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s. Sugars added to the diet are difficult to quantify accurately, but based on food intake survey data, total fructose consumption provides approximately 12% of adult energy intake or ~60g/day based on a 2000-kcal diet. Individuals who are avid consumers of soft drinks, such as adolescent males, typically consume more than two times the average intake or more than 100g/day of fructose from added sweeteners. Considering the US population as a whole, and based on both food disappearance data and food survey data, total fructose consumption has increased approximately 25% during the past three decades.

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