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(53.1) (55.1) (57.1) (59.1) (61.0) (63.0) (65.0) (66.9) (68.9) (70.9)

Height (cm) (inches in parentheses)

Figure 3 The minimal weight necessary for a particular height for restoration of menstrual cycles is indicated on the weight scale by the 10th percentile diagonal line of total water/body weight percent, 56.1%, as it crosses the vertical height line. For example, a 20-year-old woman whose height is 165 cm (65 in.) should weigh at least 49 kg (108 lb) before menstrual cycles would be expected to resume. (Adapted from Frisch and McArthur (1974) Menstrual cycles: Fatness as a determinant of minimum weight for height necessary for their maintenance or onset. Science 185: 949-951, with permission from Science.)

of the 20 athletes whose training began after menarche was 12.8 ± 0.2 years (p < 0.001). The latter mean age was similar to that of the college controls (12.7 ± 0.4 years) and the general population. Therefore, training, not preselection, is the delaying factor. Each year of premenarcheal training delayed menarche by 5 months (0.4 years). This suggests that one constructive way to reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancy would be to have girls join teams at age 8 or 9 years and maintain regular moderate exercise. Such a program might reduce the risk of serious diseases of women in later life, as discussed later.

Training also directly affected the regularity of the menstrual cycles during the training year. Of the premenarche trained athletes, only 17% had regular cycles; 61% were irregular and 22% were amenor-rheic. In contrast, 60% of the postmenarche trained athletes were regular, 40% were irregular, and none were amenorrheic. However, during intense cd <n r « -R q.

143.3) 65 141.1) 64 139.9) 63 136.7) 62 134.5) 61 132.3) 60

114.6) 52 112.0) 51 110.2) 50 108.0) 49 105.8) 48 103.6) 47

101.4) 46 (99.2) 45 (97.0) 44 (94.8) 43 (92.6) 42 (90.4) 41 (88.2) 40 (86.0) 39 (83.8) 38

Height (cm)

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