Central line


Peripheral line

Numerous brands of enteral feeds are available. Most cancer patients will require complete, whole protein feeds providing 4-6kJml~1 (1-1.5kcalml-1). Only in cases of severe malabsorption, gastrointestinal fistula, or pancreatic insufficiency may elemental, peptide, or low-fat feeds be necessary.

The choice of feeding regimen will depend on the patient's mobility and activity during the day and on the volume of feed tolerated. It may be administered in the following ways: pump feeding overnight and/ or during the day; gravity feeding, which is usually provides a faster rate of feeding that does not require the precision of a pump; and bolus feeding.

Parenteral nutrition is required where the gastrointestinal tract cannot be used, such as in patients with complete bowel obstruction or severe malabsorption.

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