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From Gregory et al. (1990).

From Gregory et al. (1990).

Diabetes

Cohort and cross-sectional studies indicate a protective effect of FF&V for type 2 diabetes. The European EPIC study reported an inverse association between FF&V intake and Hgb A1C levels. Other studies have shown a similar inverse correlation with fasting glucose and with glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test.

Cancer

The evidence of a protective effect of FF&V on several forms of cancer has been summarized by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC), the World Health Organization, and the World Cancer Research Fund. The IARC report concluded that there is strong evidence of the protective effects of FF&V for cancers of the I gastrointestina tract (including colon) and lungs, but not for others. Some studies have suggested that the intake level necessary for cancer protection may be higher than the traditional recommendation five of servings per day.

See also: Antioxidants: Observational Studies; Intervention Studies. Bioavailability. Dietary Fiber: Physiological Effects and Effects on Absorption. Food Safety: Pesticides. Legumes. Nutrition Policies In Developing and Developed Countries. Nutritional Surveillance: Developing Countries. Nuts and Seeds. Phytochemicals: Epidemiological Factors. Vegetarian Diets.

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