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Concentrated urine

Pituitary gland

ADH: water resorption Kidneys

Concentrated urine

Figure 3 Water and sodium physiology: mechanisms controlling body water gain and loss. As water is lost from the body via sweat, urine, respiration, and feces, (1) plasma osmolality increases and plasma volume decreases with water loss. (2) The increase in osmolality acts on the 'thirst center' in the hypothalamus to secrete ADH and stimulates the conscious desire for water. (3) The release of ADH from the pituitary gland increases tubular resorption of water by the kidney. (4) Aldosterone is formed via a series of reactions involving renin, which is released from the adrenal cortex in response to decreased blood pressure, and a plasma protein, angiotensin-gen. Aldosterone promotes sodium resorption by the kidney to maintain plasma volume. (5) These events conserve water and result in the production of concentrated urine.

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