See also: Cholesterol: Sources, Absorption, Function and Metabolism; Factors Determining Blood Levels. Diabetes Mellitus: Etiology and Epidemiology; Classification and Chemical Pathology; Dietary Management. Fatty Acids: Metabolism; Monounsaturated; Omega-3 Polyunsaturated; Omega-6 Polyunsaturated; Saturated; Trans Fatty Acids. Hypertension: Etiology. Lipids: Chemistry and Classification; Composition and Role of Phospholipids. Lipoproteins. Obesity: Definition, Etiology and

Assessment; Fat Distribution; Childhood Obesity; Complications; Prevention; Treatment. Pregnancy: Safe Diet for Pregnancy.

Further Reading

Ailhaud G and Hauner H (2004) Development of white adipose tissue. In: Bray GA and Bouchard C (eds.) Handbook of Obesity. Etiology and Pathophysiology, 2nd edn, pp. 481-514. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Frayn KN, Karpe F, Fielding BA, Macdonald IA, and Coppack SW (2003) Integrative physiology of human adipose tissue. International Journal of Obesity 27: 875-888.

Fried SK and Ross RR (2004) Biology of visceral adipose tissue. In: Bray GA and Bouchard C (eds.) Handbook of Obesity. Etiology and Pathophysiology, 2nd edn, pp. 589-614. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Fruhbeck G (2004) The adipose tissue as a source of vasoactive factors. Current Medicinal Chemistry (Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents) 2: 197-208.

Fruhbeck G and Gomez-Ambrosi J (2003) Control of body weight: a physiologic and transgenic perspective. Diabetologia 46:143-172.

Fruhbeck G, Gomez-Ambrosi J, Muruzabal FJ, and Burrell MA (2001) The adipocyte: a model for integration of endocrine and metabolic signaling in energy metabolism regulation. American Journal of Physiology 280: E827-E847.

Gomez-Ambrosi J, Catalan V, Diez-Caballero A, Martinez-Cruz A, Gil MJ, Garcia-Foncillas J, Cienfuegos JA, Salvador J, Mato JM, and Fruhbeck G (2004) Gene expression profile of omental adipose tissue in human obesity. The FASEB Journal 18: 215-217.

Lafontan M and Berlan M (2003) Do regional differences in adipocyte biology provide new pathophysiological insights? Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 24: 276-283.

Langin D and Lafontan M (2000) Millennium fat-cell lipolysis reveals unsuspected novel tracks. Hormone and Metabolic Research 32: 443-452.

Pond CM (1999) Physiological specialisation of adipose tissue. Progress in Lipid Research 38: 225-248.

Rosen ED, Walkey CJ, Puigserver P, and Spiegelman BM (2000) Transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis. Genes and Development 14: 1293-1307.

Shen W, Wang Z, Punyanita M, Lei J, Sinav A, Kral JG, Imielinska C, Ross R, and Heymsfield SB (2003) Adipose quantification by imaging methods: a proposed classification. Obesity Research 11: 5-16.

Trayhurn P and Beattie JH (2001) Physiological role of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue as an endocrine and secretory organ. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60: 329-339.

Unger RH (2003) The physiology of cellular liporegulation. Annual Review of Physiology 65: 333-347.

Wajchenberg BL (2000) Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: their relation to the metabolic syndrome. Endocrine Reviews 21: 697-738.

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