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aSource of data: Berner LA, Clydesdale FM, and Douglass JS (2001) Fortification contributed greatly to vitamin and mineral intakes in the United States, 1989-91. Journal of Nutrition 131: 2177-2183.

bIn this analysis, researchers determined the contribution of voluntarily fortified foods, namely the food categories ready-to-eat cereals and fortified cooked cereals, vitamin-and mineral-fortified drinks, meal replacements and supplements, and calcium-fortified milk beverages and juices. Standardized, enriched foods (i.e., foods governed by federal food standards of identity), including enriched flour, enriched bread, enriched rice, enriched pasta, and vitamin-fortified milk, were excluded in this analysis.

aSource of data: Berner LA, Clydesdale FM, and Douglass JS (2001) Fortification contributed greatly to vitamin and mineral intakes in the United States, 1989-91. Journal of Nutrition 131: 2177-2183.

bIn this analysis, researchers determined the contribution of voluntarily fortified foods, namely the food categories ready-to-eat cereals and fortified cooked cereals, vitamin-and mineral-fortified drinks, meal replacements and supplements, and calcium-fortified milk beverages and juices. Standardized, enriched foods (i.e., foods governed by federal food standards of identity), including enriched flour, enriched bread, enriched rice, enriched pasta, and vitamin-fortified milk, were excluded in this analysis.

of vitamin A among children in Spain and Northern Ireland. In the UK, which has a long tradition of fortification, fortified foods contribute positively to nutrient intakes. For example, in the UK, in 1950, red meat and vegetables were the primary sources of iron and vitamin C, respectively, among 4-year-olds. However, by 1992, most dietary iron came from fortified breakfast cereals and most vitamin C was provided by fortified beverages. Similarly, fortified breakfast cereals were found to be the principal source of folic acid and the second most important food source of vitamins B6 and D among children in Spain.

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