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□ Agriculture

■ Other income-generating

□ Leisure/social

□ Domestic chores/hygiene

Females

Females

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % of daily time (min)

Figure 3 (A) Time allocation of Senegal rural adolescents in different seasons. (Data from Benefice E, Garnier D, and Ndiaye G (2004) European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58(2): 292-301.) (B) Time allocation of a Thai rural population in different seasons. Duration of daytime activities (night sleeping excluded) in four seasons. (Data from Murayama N and Ohtsuka R (1999) European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53(1): 39-49.)

disaster, or war may lead to permanent indebtedness and poverty. In areas where cash crops are common, the fluctuation of international market prices may also disappoint the expectations of farmers. The coffee crisis is a typical example. Furthermore, diversification allows people to shift some of the labor burden to different times of the year and to obtain a second harvest in the year.

In order to secure themselves a regular income, landless people who live on seasonal labor, will have to seek off-farm labor opportunities. At times other than the peak agricultural season labor demand and wages fall and migration of the labor force to different climatic zones may take place. Migration may involve both adults and children, who in some cultures may be sent out to work as servants. At times of food shortage, children may also be sent out to stay with relatives with better resources.

Mutual support groups are created and donations in cash or food may be received by families who may be affected by crop failure or by the occurrence of an unexpected event, such as an illness or death of a family member. Food or money to buy food may be borrowed, although this strategy leads to permanent indebtedness. The final resort is the sale of household assets, particularly animals. This is a high-cost strategy, as the inability to maintain a permanent asset base traps people in poverty and permanent food insecurity.

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