Info

FC, free cholesterol; CE, cholesteryl ester; TAG, triacylglycerol; PL, phospholipid; PROT, protein; VLDL, very-low-density lipoprotein; IDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein.

FC, free cholesterol; CE, cholesteryl ester; TAG, triacylglycerol; PL, phospholipid; PROT, protein; VLDL, very-low-density lipoprotein; IDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein.

for this apparent discrepancy is that the lipoproteins of diabetic rabbits are rather large in size and do not penetrate the artery. Since 1982 we have known of an array of LDL particles ranging from small and dense to large and comparatively light. An LDL pattern characterized by an excess of small, dense particles is associated with a threefold increased risk of myocardial infarction, independent of age, sex, or body weight. Commonly, LDL is known as the 'bad' cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) as the 'good' cholesterol. These recent findings indicate the presence of 'good, bad' cholesterol and 'bad, good' cholesterol.

Among the apolipoproteins, polymorphism of apoprotein E apparently dictates a subject's chances for successful treatment of lipidemia. The apoE alleles are designated as E2, E3, and E4. The most common pattern (55%) is homozygosity for E3, which gives rise to the E3/E3 phenotype. The next most common phenotype is E3/E4 (26%). The least frequently observed phenotype is E2/E (1%), which is often associated with type III hyperlipoproteinemia. There is some evidence suggesting that subjects bearing the E4 allele have higher levels of LDL than those with the E3/E3 pattern; they may also be more prone to Alzheimer's disease. Tables 4 and 5 list primary and secondary dyslipoproteinemias.

Cholesterol and Cholesterolemia

In 1913 Anitschkow showed that it was possible to establish atherosclerosis in rabbits by feeding cholesterol. Since then virtually all research on atherosclerosis has centered on cholesterol -circulating cholesterol and dietary cholesterol. The epidemiological data suggest a role for

Table 3 Characteristics and functions of major apolipoproteins

Apolipoprotein

Lipoprotein

(Approximate molecular weight (kD))

concentration

(mgdL-1)

(Physiologic) function

Lower Your Cholesterol In Just 33 Days

Lower Your Cholesterol In Just 33 Days

Discover secrets, myths, truths, lies and strategies for dealing effectively with cholesterol, now and forever! Uncover techniques, remedies and alternative for lowering your cholesterol quickly and significantly in just ONE MONTH! Find insights into the screenings, meanings and numbers involved in lowering cholesterol and the implications, consideration it has for your lifestyle and future!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment