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aPaddy (rough) rice.

includes other cereals, pseudocereals, mixed grains, and their products not accounted for elsewhere. Source: Food and Agriculture Organisation, FAOSTAT data at http://faostat.fao.org/accessed May 2003.

aPaddy (rough) rice.

includes other cereals, pseudocereals, mixed grains, and their products not accounted for elsewhere. Source: Food and Agriculture Organisation, FAOSTAT data at http://faostat.fao.org/accessed May 2003.

processing. The caryopsis is the edible part of the cereal grain. Cereal caryopses all have the same basic structure. The major part is the endosperm (63-91% of the total). The endosperm is high in starch and contains nutritionally significant amounts of protein. Enclosing the endosperm are cell layers, amounting to 5-20% of the caryopsis, which form the bran that is often separated from the endosperm during milling processes. The embryo, which is found at one end of the caryopsis, accounts for 2.5-12% of its weight. The embryo is the major component of the germ fraction, which is separated in some milling processes.

At harvest, cereal grains have a low moisture content (12-16%), and they are hard and inedible without processing. Some grain types may be subjected to simple milling procedures and made into palatable unleavened products; others are subjected to more complex milling procedures and further processed into leavened, extruded, or fermented products using technologically advanced processes.

Food use of cereals is shown in Table 2. From this it can be seen that rice and wheat are the major world food cereals, and maize is important in some regions. However, the data in Table 2 represent food use of the crops. Since varying proportions of these crops will be lost in milling, the actual consumption levels may be substantially less.

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