29,236 11,220 15,419 15,775 28,640 7197 29,615 21,906




aRAE, Retinol activity equivalents; trials providing 60 mg RE gave a half dose to infants <12 months.

^Percentage change in mortality rate among vitamin A recipients compared to controls of similar age or lifestage for all trials. cChild-years of observation. dNumber of pregnancies.

Indicates statistically significant differences (p < 0.05).

From Sommer and West (1996) Vitamin A Deficiency: Health, Survival and Vision. New York: Oxford University Press and West (2003) Vitamin A Deficiency Disorders in Children and Women Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 24: S78-S90.

after birth with 45,000-50,000 IU of VA (Table 4). In the trial reported from India, the effect was restricted to low-birth-weight infants (<2500 g), suggesting an impact on growth-restricted or preterm newborns. Explanations include plausible matura-tional effects on an immature immune system, gut,

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