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aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 Tg retinoi, 12 Tg tf-carotene, 24 Tg l-carotene, or 24 Tg tf-cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is twofold greater than retinol equivalents (RE), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE.

"As a-tocopherol. a-Tocopherol includes RRR-a-tocopherol, the only form of a-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of a-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-a-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of a-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-a-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements. "As niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan.

dAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE= 1 ng food folate = 0.6 ng of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 ng of a supplement taken on an empty stomach. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies. Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

This table presents estimated average requirements (EARs), which serve two purposes: for assessing adequacy of population intakes, and as the basis for calculating recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for individuals for those nutrients. EARs have not been established for vitamin D, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, calcium, chromium, fluoride, manganese, or other nutrients not yet evaluated via the DRI process.

specified estimated average requirements (EARs), adequate intakes (AIs), and upper limits (ULs).

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