to correct the modest decline in Ca2+ and home-ostatically return it to the set level. Reports suggest that an elevation of serum Pi ionic concentration directly influences PTH secretion independently of hypocalcemia. These meal-associated fluctuations in Pi and Ca2+ are part of normal physiological adjustments that occur typically three or more times a day.

Pi ions are thought to be absorbed primarily by transcellular mechanisms that involve cotransport with cations, especially sodium (Na+). These rapid mechanisms account for the uptake of Pi ions in blood within 1 h after ingestion of a meal. The blood concentration of Pi is less tightly regulated than the serum calcium concentration. Wider fluctuations in serum Pi concentrations reflect both dietary intakes and cellular releases of inorganic phosphates.

Most Pi absorption by the small intestine occurs independently of the hormonal form of vitamin D. The reported role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in intestinal Pi transcellular absorption is somewhat unclear because of the normally rapid influx of Pi ions after a meal, but this hormone may enhance the late or slower uptake of Pi ions. Paracellular passive absorption of Pi ions may also occur, but the evidence for this is limited.

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