aDuring the first trimester and follow-up during pregnancy to validate gestational age. ^The use of one or more recognized methods to measure neonatal maturation. cPeriodic home visits to detect the first lack of menstruation. IUGR, intrauterine growth restriction; LBW, low birthweight.

From Villar J and Belizan JM (1982) The relative contribution of prematurity and fetal growth retardation to low birthweight in developing and developed societies. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 143: 793-798.

interventions that have been hypothesized to have potential to prevent preterm delivery, such as protein and energy supplementation, protein and energy restriction, salt restriction, iron and/or folate supplementation, zinc supplementation, and vitamin A supplementation, have not been proved to be effective.

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